When it comes to disasters, the first events that come to mind are fires, along with earthquakes, which are not preventable; these have been described as kıyâmet-i suğrâ (little apocalypses). This is an apt description of the fires that have occurred in Istanbul. The fact that the threat of fire occupied the subconscious of the state and the public until the middle of the 20th century is proof of this assertion. Also, many Western travelers who ventured into the Ottoman lands and wrote about their travels dedicated special sections to fires in their chapters on Istanbul; this, too, serves as evidence of this fear. The literature suggests that fires were perceived by the public as inevitable and destined to be repeated. The statement by James Dallaway that “fires are so frequent that few months pass without them”1 confirms this. In addition, the adage “the fires of Istanbul, the epidemics of Anatolia”2 represents the significant place that this type of disaster occupied in people’s minds.
The first edict that directed a radical shift from wood to stone as the prevalent construction material in Istanbul was enacted in the 17th century,3 but change did not really yield positive results until the 19th century. There were many reasons behind this delay, among them the frequent large earthquakes in the region, the high cost of stone construction materials in terms of labor and transportation, the greater necessity urging people to reconstruct their houses shortly after disasters, and the fact that wooden buildings were easily heated and altered or renovated. It is also clear that with every fire, changes in the topographical structure of the city appeared.
In keeping with the scope of this study, for most fires, only the date and place will be provided. Particularly great fires will be discussed in detail, in terms of their results and the regions that they affected.
In connection with the Ottoman settlement policy, there was a period of revival and reconstruction in Istanbul at the time of the conquest (1453). Accordingly, the settlement area of the city gradually became smaller, and the population was concentrated in the centers, particularly in Galata and Eyüp. Areas of dense housing developed, and this was one of the most important causes of the fires. In addition, with the influence of the northeasterly wind, any fire that started in the Golden Horn would inevitably sweep through the city toward the southwest; this area had been the starting point of major fires even in the Byzantine period.
During the Byzantine period, dozens of fires occurred in Istanbul. A significant number of these were incendiary events triggered by reasons such as sectarian strife, the discontent of workers toward their superiors, and other public protests. Some fires that occurred during this period were so destructive that they necessitated the reconstruction of part or all of the city.4
Throughout the centuries of Ottoman Istanbul, dozens of fires occurred; some were so great that they were given names such as ihrâk‑ı azîm, harîk‑i kebîr, and harîk-i ekber. These fires completely destroyed the city. There is an old saying that fires prevented the thresholds from being filled with gold summarizes Istanbul’s struggle with fires. The fact that between 1563 and 1600, a period of 37 years, the number of fires was recorded as 17 by Selaniki, makes this proverb ring true.5
The first fire that Ottoman Istanbul experienced occurred in the 15th century (the exact date is unknown); starting around Fatih Mosque, it consumed 123 shops and 16 rooms in Sultanpazarı, as well as other shops in the surrounding area.6 In 1489, Güngörmez Church in Atmeydanı, which was used as a gunpowder and munitions storehouse, was struck by lightning. The explosion destroyed the church and much of the surrounding area, and many people died.7
In 1501, a gunpowder shop in Galata was stuck by lightning; this was followed by an explosion and fire that left the neighboring areas in ruins.8 It also resulted in the death of Grand Vizier Mesih Pasha and initiated the convention that the janissary aghas would watch for fires and be responsible for extinguishing them.9 During a fire that started in 1515 around Kapalıçarşı, a large number of shops and neighborhoods were destroyed. Demolishing the shops of Atik Ali Paşa Vakfı in Tavukpazarı, this fire was extinguished before it spread to the Gedikpaşa Hamam (Turkish baths). In connection with this fire, Selim I mentioned his regret about the death penalty he had imposed on Tacizade Cafer Çelebi after the Çaldıran Battle.10
The fire of 1539 in Zindankapı (Baba Cafer Zindanı), which is known as the largest fire since the conquest, started in one of the pitch and tar shops located around the dungeon outside of Suriçi (the part of the Golden Horn that includes modern-day Eminönü and Fatih); nearly 700 prisoners were burned to death.11
In a fire that started on February 5, 1540, when Süleyman the Magnificent was in Edirne, the Old Palace was burned down.12 Until this time, the owners of houses and shops that had caught fire were executed as punishment for their negligence. But this convention came to an end, as it could not be applied to the sultan.13
A fire that started in a grocery shop near Baba Cafer Zindanı in 1554 affected Tahtakale and Odunkapısı, and many prisoners burned to death.14
A fire that occurred on September 28, 1569, is known to be the greatest fire of the 16th century.15 It is thought to have started at a bakery shop in the Jewish neighborhood, which was the most crowded district in the city. The fire occurred at a time when the houses were very dry, since it had not rained for five months. None of the houses in the area survived the fire;16 not even the brick houses.17 Since Cafer Agha, the janissary agha, was not present at the scene of the fire due to illness, the janissaries attempted to plunder the buildings rather than put out the fire, and only aggravated the flames.18 Following this, Cafer Agha was dismissed from his post.19
There are conflicting reports about the duration of the fire of 1569. Some sources said that it lasted for a day and a night,20 others that it continued for a week.21 In a report dated October 15, 1569, the Venetian ambassador Barbaro indicated that the fire could not be extinguished completely even after eight days.22 Referring to some reports by European ambassadors, Hammer stated that 36,000 houses were destroyed by this fire.23 An edict enacted after the fire required each household to keep a ladder in the house and a large barrel of water in the attic.24
In May 1574, while someone was cooking kebab in the Matbah-ı Amire (palace kitchen), chimney soot caught fire; this fire grew, eventually causing Topkapı Palace to burn down. The servant rooms, cellar, and helvahane (a special room where desserts were prepared) were burned down, together with numerous rare kitchen utensils. The harem was not damaged. Koca Sinan prepared new plans for the palace and enlarged the matbah area.25
A fire that started on April 8, 1589, around Kapalıçarşı destroyed the Jewish neighborhood and Bitpazarı entirely, going as far as the Gedikpaşa Hamam. The janissaries took advantage of this fire and attempted to loot properties. In other fires that occurred in the same year, Tahtakale, Karaman Pazarı, and Saraçhane were also affected.26 Janissaries extinguished a fire that occurred a few months later, in June 1589, and they stoned their leader, Hızır Agha, because they had not been rewarded with basheesh by the sultan. Following this, Hızır Agha was appointed as Rumeli beylerbeyi (governor-general), and his position in charge of the janissaries was filled by the Mir-i Alem, Mahmud Agha.27 However, Mahmud Agha was also dismissed from this post because of his involvement in the fires that occurred in 1590 in Karaman Pazarı and Saraçhane.28
After being summoned to extinguish a fire that broke out in Tophane on July 17, 1591, the janissaries saw that the fire had died out by itself; they then set the house of Deli İbrahim Pasha on fire and plundered it. They justified this based on the mistreatment they had suffered at the pasha’s hands when he was the beylerbey of Erzurum, and because he had unjustly killed a janissary.29 In April 1591, a fire started in a house near Üsküplü Mescidi, which was near Hagia Sophia. Although this fire spread to other houses and caused damage, it was put out, as the janissaries “this time behaved in a helpful manner, accompanying the Muslims thoroughly.”30 Springing up on the night of the Eid al Adha, on August 28, 1594, another fire in Yenihan, near Tavukpazarı, was extinguished before spreading, thanks to the efforts of Mehmed Agha (the Istanbul agha) and the acemi oğlans.31
A fire that started in one of the ship material shops in front of Mehmed Paşa Mosque in Galata on the night of the Feast of Ramadan, April 28, 1596, consumed all shops at this location. The public was glad to see that the fire had died out by itself before the janissaries arrived—not only because they survived the fire, but also because the plundering of the janissaries had been prevented. Selânikî recounted this situation as follows:
Yeniçeri gaddârları ve sâ’ir evbâş gāretinden Müslimânlar halâs oldılar. Fe-emmâ âteş muntafî olup, her kişi mekânına avdet ider oldukda ... Hemen ehl ü iyâli can ile kurtulduğın ganîmet bildiler.
(The Muslims were saved from the looting of the janissary traitors and the other ruffians. When the fire was put out the people returned to their houses that had been saved and considered that they and their families had been saved as a great bounty.)32
However, on their return, the janissaries plundered the house of subaşı (police) Rıdvan Çavuş, who was living near Tahtakale.33 Less than a month later, a fire that started in the Mumhane (Wax House) and spread through nearby gun shops grew as the gunpowder caught fire; however, it was extinguished in a short time. Janissaries did not have the opportunity to plunder because the fire occurred in the daytime;34 however, looting that occurred during two fires in Fatih in 1598 caused great damage.35 In April of the same year, a house near Hagia Sophia burned down, but the fire was extinguished before it had a chance to spread.36 A fire that consumed a masjid (prayer room) and its precincts in Saraçhane on February 18, 1599, was quickly extinguished, after the arrival of the grand vizier and the janissary agha.37
A fire that occurred in the Eminönü Jewish neighborhood on May 22, 1606, caused widespread damage.38 The Dutch ambassador stated that between 1613 and 1614, seven fires occurred in Istanbul; in terms of the negative effects of these fires, the ambassador emphasized that the one on May 30, 1613, caused the greatest damage.39
A fire that occurred in Cibali in 1633 not only caused great damage, due to the effect of the wind, but it also caused the government to make significant decisions. In spite of great efforts, due to the strong north wind there was “no means of preventing the fire other than resorting to prayer.” The fire lasted for three days and died out by itself when the wind turned in the opposite direction.40 According to Katib Çelebi’s account, one-fifth of the city was annihilated in this fire.41 Afterward, coffeehouses were closed by Murad IV and some of them were demolished, with the thought that they caused fires and were hotbeds of incitement. These coffeehouses were replaced by bachelor rooms and shops. Moreover, upon receiving the information that this fire had been caused by smoking, the sultan banned the practice.42
On August 31, 1640, at midnight, a fire started in one of the wax storage buildings in Balatkapı. It reached houses on the coast and, due to the strong wind, spread through the area between the city walls, burning down some of the houses. Consuming Fethiye Mosque in Çarşamba, this fire moved through Fenerkapı, Yavuz Selim, Çukurbostan, and Fatih, dying out around midday.43 As the result of a fire that started in Galata Port on the same date, a ship exploded when the gunpowder it was carrying was ignited. This explosion burned the face of Grand Vizier Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pasha, and this caused the pasha to be away from state affairs for three months.44
A fire that started in a başçı shop (a shop that sells sheep heads) near Darphane in Beyazıt on June 26, 1645, damaged many historical structures. Starting at midnight and continuing until the evening of the next day, the fire spread from the madrasa of Beyazıt Mosque to Langa, and reached Kadırga Port and Yenikapı along the coast, affecting Kumpapı. Among the places that were damaged in the fires were the doors of Beyazıt Harem, the palace of Yahni Kapan, the hamam of Sultan Bayazıt, and some Greek and Armenian churches in Kumkapı.45 Eremya Çelebi, who was only nine years old at that time, stated that when Sultan İbrahim was examining the disaster area, he personally gave orders for the restoration of the ruined churches.46
A fire that started in Esirhanı around Ali Paşa Almshouse on November 20, 1652, spread through Tavukpazarı and Kapalıçarşı in Çarşıkapı due to the strong wind. The vicinities of Gürcü Paşa Palace, Valide Hammam, Elçi Han, Mahmut Paşa Bazaar, and Mercan Mosque burned down in the fire. The fire traveled through the Eski Saray (the Old Palace) and Beyazıt Mosque; the places between Valide Hammam and Şahkulu Madrasah, together with Sedefçiler Çarşısı, were entirely destroyed. The fire also reached Gedikpaşa and Kadırga Port.47 A fire that started in Yenikapı Surp Sargis Church on April 26 of the same year was extinguished before it could spread; only four walls of the church were left undamaged.48
On May 18, 1653, a fire that started in the başhane in Odunkapısı spread down the coast of the Golden Horn. The houses and shops in Yemiş Port, Zindankapı and Hasır Port were burned down, as was a stone barley warehouse. Kanlı Fırın Mosque, also known as Ahi Çelebi Mosque and Court, was also damaged by this fire.49
Starting at Karaköykapısı in April 1660, another fire damaged nearly three-quarters of Galata.50 Eremya Çelebi noted that four Greek and seven Frankish churches were burned down in this fire.51 The treatment of these churches after the fire can be confirmed in court records, which show that some of the churches were confiscated and utilized by the state.52 On July 24, 1660, three months after this fire, another great fire occurred; it started in Odunkapısı and lasted for 49 hours, consuming two-thirds of the city. Reconstruction of Yeni Camii in Eminönü started after this fire; in parallel with this, there were radical changes in population and architecture.53
The Topkapı Palace fire, dated July 24, 1665, is important for its effects on the structure of the harem building. This fire started when someone attempted to injure one of the royal concubines; great damage was caused, not only to the harem but also to Adl Pavilion, as well as the Kubbealtı, where council meetings were held. Additionally, the foreign treasury, the upper section of the defterhane (registrar), the Darüssaade Gate, the Karaağalar rooms, part of the valide sultan’s rooms, and the kitchens were burned down. During this fire, the inhabitants of the harem were sent to Çayır Pavilion and to the Old Palace.54
A concubine who had been beaten by her master set his house on fire as an act of vengeance on February 4, 1673. As the fire grew and spread through the neighboring buildings, 80 shops, all the way up to Valide Han, were consumed.55 In April 1677, a fire that started on the side of the harem and affected the mansions in the Tersane garden was extinguished before it could spread to the latticed-glass mansions that belonged to the sultan.56 Many buildings were damaged by fires that occurred around Fenerkapısı in April 1679 and in Mahmutpaşa Market in March 1680.57 Many houses and shops were consumed by another fire that started in Galata in September 1681.58 According to an archival document, in 1682 a fire occurred near İbrahim Paşa Mosque in Uzunçarşı, and 32,000 akçe were transferred to the kaymakam pasha (district governor) from the state treasury, to meet the needs of the victims.59
A fire that started in the beginning of 1683 in a house in Tavşantaşı affected many houses; as its perimeter grew, fed by a strong wind, one of the minarets of Beyazıt Mosque caught fire.60 In March 1683, Kurşunlu mahzen (vault or cellar) in Galata caught fire and the caulking tools inside burned for 15 days.61 A fire that started in Odunkapısı in April 1683 stretched as far as Ayazmakapısı and Süleymaniye, with more than 1,000 houses burning down.62
On August 8, 1687, more than 500 houses and 1,000 shops were burned down in a fire that started in a house near the gate of the Old Palace. Shortly thereafter, on September 11, 1687, fire consumed many parts of the Old Palace. One of the important results of this fire was that the next day Muazzez Sultan, the mother of Ahmet II, died as a result of the fear she experienced during the fire.63
The Istanbul Gunpowder Factory, which was constructed in 1688 near the Şehremini Market, exploded in September 1699 as a result of contact with a spark. Due to this explosion, more than 400 houses in the vicinity burned down, and tall buildings in Aksaray, Fatih, and Silivrikapı were damaged.64 With the understanding that the presence of a gunpowder factory within the city was risky, the new gunpowder factory was constructed in İskender Çelebi Garden near Bakırköy.65 However, on August 24, 1707, this building shared the same fate.66
A fire that started on the night of March 8, 1688, in a pub near Balıkpazarı Gate affected all the shops in the Eminönü Spice Market and the areas up to Hasır Port. The shops and vaults around Rüstem Paşa Mosque, Balkapanı, Uzunçarşı, Mercan Market, Mahmutpaşa, Alacahamam, Valide Han, and the precincts of İbrahim Paşa Mosque were damaged by this fire. Since the janissaries did not do anything to extinguish the fire, nearly 1,500 houses and 5,000 shops were destroyed. Efforts to encourage the janissaries to extinguish the fire did not work. In Silahdar Tarihi, this event is recounted based on the statements of janissaries and administrators as follows:
“Kul tâ’ifesi hıyânet edip sancak‑ı şerîf çıkarıp kulu kırmak hoş mudur, ko yansın! şehirli keferesi’ deyip el çekdiler vüzerâ ve ocak ağaları ‘din gayretidir, yoldaşlar!’ diye gördüler müfîd olmamağla.”
(The soldiers rebelled, pulling out the banner, and said, “Is it OK to kill a soldier, let them burn! City heathens!” and turned back from putting out the fire. The viziers and janissary aghas said, “This is a religious duty, friends!” But it was of no use; the soldiers could not be convinced.)67
In May 1690, a fire that started in a shop in Eyüp Market spread to other shops in the vicinity and damaged Eyüp Mosque, destroying the dome, a minaret, and the sultan’s gallery. These were restored, but it was three months before the mosque could be opened to worshippers again.68 A fire that started in a shop in the Spice Market on January 3, 1691, caused great damage after the watchmen and a few other people poured turpentine on it by mistake, causing it to flare up. Lasting until the next evening, when it died out by itself, this fire consumed 1,000 purses of money as well as numerous valuable goods. Silahdar recounted the damage as follows:
Ve birkaç güne değin içine girilmeyüp der-mahzen bin kîse kadar nukûddan gayrı Hind ve Acem ve Yemen ve Frenk ve Rûm ve Mısır metâ‘ından altı bin kîselik eşyâ-yı nefîse ihrâk olduğın, ashâb-ı dekâkîn haber virdiler. Ve demür kapulı birkaç mahzen kurtulup, hâricde olan dekâkîn ve mahzene isâbet itmeyüp ancak boşaldup kaçırdılar.
(For a few days the Grand Bazaar could not be entered; the owners of the stores provided information that in addition to one thousand purses of cash, goods from India, Iran, Yemen, Europe, Rumelia, and Egypt, worth six thousand purses, were lost. Some stores with iron doors were spared. The stores and shops outside the market were not damaged, but the goods were emptied and thus they were saved).69
On June 7, 1693, a fire started in a shop in the Karanlık Mescit region near Cibali Gate and grew with the wind. It spread through Salih Paşa Mosque, Zeyrek, and Atpazarı. Some churches and synagogues in the three neighborhoods around this area were burned down, along with 11 masjids, 838 houses, 98 shops, 3 madrasas, and a school.70
A fire that started in Odunkapısı on September 5, 1693, in its first stage consumed Jewish houses, customs vaults, and shops. Spread by the wind beyond the walls through Cibali Gate, the fire consumed areas up to Cerrahpaşa Mosque, following two different paths.71 Shortly thereafter, on September 17, 1693, another fire occurred outside Ayazmakapısı. Since the shops and lumber yards in the vicinity caught fire, it spread beyond the walls from Odunkapısı and reached as far as Süleymaniye.72
In January 1695, a fire broke out in Kaplıçarşı; this affected a few houses and shops.73 On May 7, 1696, St. Benoit Church burned down in a fire that started in Galata.74 The French Capuchin and Jesuit churches were also damaged by this fire. An offer was submitted to the sultan by the French ambassador, and the restoration of these churches was allowed.75 Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Paşa Mosque was one of the places destroyed by this fire.76
An edict enacted in June 1696, after this last fire in Galata, had extremely important features. It expressed the opinion that the state was suffering due to the fires and that further problems could only be prevented by changing the material used in the city to construct buildings. It ordained that the buildings should be rebuilt in the devastated areas in Galata and in Istanbul and should be “constructed of stone, lime, and mud” as used in Aleppo, Damascus, and some parts of Anatolia.77
In the first record of a fire in the 18th century, A. M. Schneider indicated that a blaze that started on the night of June 23, 1700, consumed more than 100 houses, but no information was provided about the starting point of the fire.78
A fire that started in the Grand Bazaar on December 4, 1701, encircled the Spice Market, and later the shops in the areas of Sipah Market, Kebeciler Han, Bitpazarı, and Mercan Market were consumed by the fire.79 After the fire, the kaymakam, Çerkes Osman Pasha, asked the opinion of the prominent people of the city, saying:
“Buna ne çâre idelim ki; bu şehrin âb‑ı rûyı olan bu çarşu bazar ihrâkdan emîn ola?” (“What should we do to protect the market and shops of this city, which are the honor of the city?”)
They agreed that any shops to be reconstructed in the Grand Bazaar from that time should be built of stone. As a result of the proposal submitted to Mustafa II, an edict was enacted,80 proclaiming that the wooden market was to be restored with stone or brick.
Extinguishing a fire that began in 1703 around Alacahamam took a long time, although the grand vizier and Ahmed III, who had recently ascended the throne, came to the scene themselves. The houses and shops around Haseki and the Sultan hamam were destroyed in this fire; only the masonry workshops in Ketenciler Market remained undamaged.81
On January 15, 1706, a fire that broke out in Kalafatçılar in Galata spread to the lumberyard in Tersane. The kaptan-i derya, Abdurrahman Pasha, was held responsible for the fire by the sultan and was executed as an example to others.82 Shops and a few houses burned down in a fire that started in the Vezneciler Market on June 12, 1707.83 On July 31, 1708, a fire that started at the başhane in Eyüp Port consumed houses and mansions on both sides of the street.84 On November 8, 1708, a fire broke out in a house near Hobyar Mosque in Hocapaşa; the fire consumed the sherbet shops and the fountain in front of Mahmut Paşa Hamam in one direction. In another direction, stretching from the area behind the Ciğalazade Palace, it consumed houses, a mosque, Rüstem Paşa Madrasah, Daye Hatun Mosque, and the İpekçi basement.85
Records demonstrate that the state treasury gave financial support amounting to 17,000 akçe to a poor woman named Havva, who lived alone, to rebuild her house. Although there is no information in the document about the scale of the fire, it can be understood that a fire broke out in Beşiktaş in 1710. The financial support was given personally by the sermimaran-ı hassa (chief architect).86 On the stormy day of January 23, 1715, a fire that broke out in Galata Azapkapı was extinguished in a short time.87 A fire that started around Beyazıt Mosque on July 9, 1725, spread through Kumkapı.88 In addition, fires broke out in March and November 1716, in Fatih Karaman Market and in Saraçhane.89
A fire that started in Cibali on July 17, 1718, expanded, driven by a north wind. Spreading in various directions, it affected a large area, including Unkapanı, Zeyrek, Vefa, Süleymaniye, some parts of Şehzade Mosque and its precincts, the janissary chambers, Çukurçeşme, Laleli Fountain, Aksaray, Altı Mermer, Atpazarı, Fatih, Kocamustafa Paşa, and Kumkapı; it lasted for 27 hours.90 A total of 51,000 houses, 2,283 shops, 171 mosques, 152 palaces, 80 mills, 98 bakeries, and 1,601 schools were consumed by this fire.91 According to İnciciyan’s account, the death toll reached 15,000.92 After the fire, some significant precautions were taken to prevent the development of a ihtikâr (black market) for building supplies, and orders were given to prevent price gouging for timber brought from İzmit.93 Because there were too few carpenters, attempts were made to send carpenters from Midilli, Maydos, and Kayseri to Istanbul.94 Reconstruction of the ruined mosques and masjids was assigned to the statesmen.95 A fire that started on the night of July 22, 1719, grew quickly as the houses were close to each other. İbrahim Paşa Mosque, which had burned down a few years before and had recently been reconstructed, burned again in this fire, together with other places.96 Based on an edict enacted after the fire, some changes were made to the buildings.97
With the water pump invented by Gerçek Davud Pasha in 1720, the method of fighting fires changed. Founded in this year, the Tulumbacı corps came to the fore as the institution responsible for combating fires.98 In Râşid Târihi, the benefit that the water pump brought was described as follows: “
Tulumbacılar ihdâs ve tertîb olunduğu günden beri vukû‘ bulan harîkler bi-inâyetillâhi te‘âlâ çendân mütemâdî olmayıp suhûlet üzre zamân‑ı yesîrde müntafî olduğu” (“From the day that the tumubacı organization was formed until today, the fires that have taken place, with the help of God, have not lasted long and have been able to be put out quickly.”)99
However, it is known that in the following years, this water pump was inadequate for fighting fires. O. Nuri Ergin stated: “After the appearance of the water pump, fires did not diminish; indeed, the greatest fires broke out at this time. Thus, the benefits of the water pump were limited.”100
As a matter of fact, during the period after the water pump was introduced, the fires that started in various parts of Istanbul continued to cause great harm to the city.101 For example, a fire that broke out in Balat on July 27, 1729, consumed one-eighth of the city.102 Fires that occurred around Fındıklı and Şengül Hamam103 in 1730 and in Galata in 1731 caused great damage.104 In April 1732, fires that broke out two days apart in Koska and Molla Gürani devastated many buildings.105 In the same year, fires occurred in Eyüp,106 Kasımpaşa, Beyazıt, and Ayakapı.107 During 1733, fires were reported in Fatih Zülali,108 and there were fires in Tophane, Unkapanı, and Şehzadebaşı in 1735.109
In 1740, a fire broke out in the Sublime Porte, and although the building was not destroyed at first, after burning for one week it was totally consumed due to the continuously smoldering weeds that had been left in the debris.110 After this, fires occurred at various times between 1740 and 1742 in Üsküdar, Beyazıt, Hagia Sophia, Kulebostanı, Sultanahmet, Kasımpaşa, Kadırga Port, and Şehzadebaşı.111 Fires also occurred in Fatih and Kanlı Fırın in 1744; in 1745 there was a fire in an ammunition shop in the Tersane, and another shop in the Kiremit neighborhood in Fener caught fire.112 The ammunition shop was rebuilt to be more secure and fire-worthy.113 By 1746, fires had occurred in the Hobyar neighborhood in Hocapaşa as well as in Galata and Balatkapısı, while in 1747 a fire damaged Samatya.114 A fire that started in Küçükpazar on February 4, 1750, grew with the wind. Among the many buildings that burned down was the Ağakapısı.115 In the same year, Bitpazarı and the mansion of the sheikh-ul Islam in Bahçekapısı also burned down. Also, in a fire that started in the Üsküdar Ayazma Palace, many shops and houses burned down.116 A fire in Bitpazarı caused great damage due to the negligence of the janissaries and their later involvement in the looting.117 A fire that started at Fatih Büyük Karaman in 1751 grew with the wind,118 destroying 7,000 houses and 3,000 shops.119
Fires occurred in Gedikpaşa,120 Koska, Beyazıt, Kandilli, and Langa121 in 1752; in Galata, Kandilli, Yenkapı, Cibali, Şehzadebaşı, Aksaray, Üsküdar, Uzunçarşı, Sultanhamam, Ayvansaray, and Kadırga Port, fires occurred between 1753 and 1755.122
A fire that started in Hocapaşa in October 1755 lasted for 36 hours due to the wind and devastated a large part of the city.123 The carpenters who were rebuilding the places demolished after the fire in Kuzguncuk in 1754 were unable to leave the city, kept there by the Hocapaşa fire.124 In 1756, fires occurred first in Samatya and later in Cibali. The second of these grew with the wind and reached as far as Yenikapı.125 Bakeries on the coast of Üsküdar provided bread for victims of this fire.126
In 1758, 1762, and 1763, fires occurred around Sultanahmet, in Odunkapısı, Beyazıt, Fatih, and Üsküdar.127 In 1782, three different fires occurred in Istanbul; each did great damage to the city.128 The last of these, starting in Cibali on August 22, was one of the greatest disasters that Istanbul had ever seen.129 Between 1784 and 1807, numerous fires occurred in various Istanbul locations, including Galata, Hasköy, and Üsküdar.130
During the Alemdar Incident in 1808, charges of arson were brought.131 A fire that started in Hocapaşa on August 2, 1826, caused a great disaster.132 On August 31, 1833, a fire that started in Cibali grew with the wind into multiple branches, destroying half the city.133 The Sublime Porte burned down for the third time in 1839. Reconstruction with stone and masonry was completed in 1843.134
O. Nuri Ergin listed in Table 229 the different fires that occurred between 1854 and 1919.135 In two undergraduate theses on the fires of Istanbul, it can be seen that hundreds of fires occurred between 1831 and 1923.136
The Aksaray fire, which broke out in 1856, led to the reorganization of some streets and avenues.137 The Hocapaşa fire, which broke out in 1865, “brought wellbeing to Istanbul, rather than disaster” and paved the way for the foundation of the Islahat-ı Tarîk Komisyonu (Road Reform Commission). In accordance with the plans that this commission prepared, the areas of the Sublime Porte, Divanyolu, and Gedikpaşa were reconstructed in an appropriate and orderly manner.138
Although a radical transformation occurred in architecture with the change in construction materials, fires did not disappear in the 20th century. For instance, fires in Çırçır (1908), Darıca (1910), Babıali (1911), Uzunçarşı (1911), İshakpaşa (1912), and Yavuz Selim (1918) caused great destruction.141
During the Republican period, dozens of fires occurred in various districts of Istanbul. The fires that took place between 1923 and 1965 are discussed in detail by Tarık Özavcı.142 The fires of Karagümrük (1923), Arnavutköy (1924), Heybeliada (1925), Üsküdar İcadiye (1926), Maltepe (1926), Üsküdar Valideiatik (1927), Tatavla (1929), Teşvikiye Çiftebakkallar (1931), and Fenerkapı (1941) followed one upon the other.143 In addition, a fire occurred in Beşiktaş in 1931.144 A fire in 1943 considerably damaged the Grand Bazaar and its vicinity.145 In a fire in the Sütlüce Nuri Paşa Factory in 1949, six firefighters died and others were injured in an explosion.146 In 1950, many shops burned in a fire in the Sahaflar second-hand books market.147 In a fire that resulted from an electrical shortage in 1954, 1,394 shops burned down inside and outside the Grand Bazaar.148 In 1957, the Mobilyacılar furniture market on the grounds of Şehzade Mosque burned down; the mosque was also damaged in this fire.149 Again in 1957, a fire occurred in the Grand Market.150 After an explosion in Sirkeci, a fire broke out in 1959, and people died in this fire.151
From that date onward, although numerous fires occurred in homes or workplaces, in general these remained isolated events. However, during this same period, forest fires—for example, the fires that appear on the Marmara Islands during the summer—have become more frequent and have caused great damage. Arson fires have also occurred, including the Sayıştay (exchequer) archives fire and fires in historical buildings.
1 James Dallaway, Constantinople Ancient and Modern with Excursions to the Shores and Islands of the Archipelago and to the Troad, London: Printed by T. Bensley, for T. Cadell Junr. & W. Davies, 1797, p. 73.
2 Osman Nuri Ergin, Mecelle‑i Umûr‑ı Belediyye, Istanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Kültür İşleri Daire Başkanlığı, 1995, vol. 2, p. 1077.
3 See İstanbul Şer‘iyye Sicilleri (İŞS), no. 22, ff. 22b/169; Ahmed Refik Altınay, On İkinci Asırda İstanbul Hayatı (1100-1200), Istanbul: Enderun Kitabevi, 1988, p. 21 (Zilkade 1107/Haziran 1696).
4 For general information about fires in the Byzantine period, see: Birsel Küçüksipahioğlu, “IV-VII. Yüzyıllarda İstanbul’da Doğal Afetler”, Afetlerin Gölgesinde İstanbul :Tarih Boyunca İstanbul ve Çevresini Etkileyen Faktörler, edited by Said Öztürk, Istanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Çevre Koruma ve Kontrol Daire Başkanlığı Çevre Koruma Müdürlüğü, no date, pp. 30-36; also see these two articles in the same source: Ebru Altan, “VIII-XI. Yüzyıllarda İstanbul ve Çevresinde Doğal Afetler”, p. 54; Muharrem Kesik, “İstanbul’da Doğal Afetler (1100-1250)”, pp. 74-78.
5 Minna Rozen and Benjamin Arbel, “Great Fire in the Metropolis: The Case of the Istanbul Conflagration of 1569 and its Description by Marcantonio Barbaro”, Mamluk and Ottoman Societies: Studies in Honor of Michael Winter, edited by David Wasserstein and Ami Ayalon, New York: Routledge, 2005, p. 134.
6 TSMA, no. Quoted from E.11477 by Mustafa Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar ve Tabii Âfetler”, Türk San‘atı Tarihi Araştırma ve İncelemeleri, Istanbul: Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi, 1963, vol. 1, p. 328.
7 Âşıkpaşazâde, Âşıkpaşazâde Târihi, London: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, 1970, pp. 239-40; A. M. Schneider, “Brande in Konstantinopel”, BZ, 1941, vol. 41, p. 389.
8 Âşıkpaşazâde, Târih, pp. 262-263.
9 Hami Danişmend, İzahlı Osmanlı Tarihi Kronolojisi, Istanbul: Türkiye Yayınevi, 1972, vol. 1, p. 410.
10 Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, Devlet‑i Osmaniye Tarihi, translated by Mehmed Ata, Istanbul: Keteon Bedrosyan Matbaası, 1330, vol. 4, p. 149.
11 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, p. 330; also, in his travel book, S. Schweigger mentioned a fire in a dungeon and stated that 70 people died. This was most probably the fire in Zindankapı. Salomon Schweigger, Sultanlar Kentine Yolculuk: 1578-1581, edited by Heidi Stein, translated by S. Türkis Noyan, Istanbul: Kitap Yayınevi, 2004, p. 103.
12 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, p. 331.
13 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, p. 331.
14 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, p. 331.
15 Benjamin Arbel, Trading Nations: Jews and Venetians in the Early Modern Eastern Mediterranean, quoted from Leiden: Brill, 1995, pp. 8-11, 13-28, 62, 117, 140 by M. Rozen & B. Arbel, op.cit, p. 151. The Venetian ambassador Barbaro stated that there was a rumor that this fire was started on purpose.
16 Rozen and Arbel, “Great Fire in the Metropolis”, p. 155, 157.
17 Selânikî Mustafa Efendi, Tâih‑i Selânikî, 2nd ed., edited by Mehmet İpşirli, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1999, vol. 1, p. 76.
18 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 76-77; Hammer, Târih, vol. 6, p. 210.
19 Danişmend, Kronoloji, vol. 2, p. 387.
20 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 76.
21 Peçuylu İbrahim, Târih, Istanbul: Enderun Kitabevi, 1980, vol. 1, p. 485; Karaçelebizâde Abdülaziz Efendi, Ravzatü’l-ebrâr, Bulak: Bulak Matbaası, 1832, p. 449.
22 Rozen and Arbel, “Great Fire in the Metropolis”, p. 158.
23 Hammer, Târih, vol. 6, p. 210.
24 Ahmet Refik Altınay, On Altıncı Asırda İstanbul Hayatı (1553-1591), Istanbul: Enderun Kitabevi, 1988, pp. 60-61.
25 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 90.
26 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 213.
27 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 213-214.
28 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 221.
29 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 246-247.
30 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 269.
31 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, p. 385.
32 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 2, p. 601.
33 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 2, p. 601.
34 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 2, p. 604.
35 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 2, pp. 722, 739-740.
36 Selânikî, Târih, Târih, vol. 2, p. 743.
37 Selânikî, , Târih, vol. 2, pp. 795-796.
38 Mustafa Naîmâ, Târih‑i Naîmâ, edited by Mehmet İpşirli, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2007, vol. 1, p. 325.
39 B. J. Slot, “The Fires in Istanbul of 1782 and 1784 According to Maps and Reports by Dutch Diplomatic Representatives”, Güneydoğu Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1975-76, no. 4-5, pp. 47-48.
40 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 2, p. 754-755; Hrand D. Andreasyan, “Eremya Çelebi’nin Yangınlar Tarihi”, TD, 1973, no. 27, p. 62.
41 Kâtib Çelebi, Fezleke, Istanbul: Ceride-i Havadis Matbaası, 1287, vol. 1, p. 154.
42 Kâtib Çelebi, Fezleke, vol. 1, pp. 154-155; Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 2, pp. 755-757; Solakzâde Mehmed Çelebi, Solakzâde Târihi, Istanbul: Mahmud Bey Matbaası, 1297, pp. 752-753; Andreasyan, “Eremya Çelebi’nin Yangınlar Tarihi”, p. 62.
43 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 2, p. 947.
44 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 2, p. 946; Andreasyan, “Eremya Çelebi’nin Yangınlar Tarihi”, p. 63.
45 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 3, p. 1064; Andreasyan, “Eremya Çelebi’nin Yangınlar Tarihi”, pp. 63-65.
46 Andreasyan, “Eremya Çelebi’nin Yangınlar Tarihi”, pp. 64-65.
47 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 3, p. 1427; Kâtib Çelebi, Fezleke, vol. 2, p. 382.
48 Eremya Çelebi Kömürciyan, İstanbul Tarihi: XVII. Asırda İstanbul, 2nd ed., translated by Hrand D. Andreasyan, edited by Kevork Pamukciyan, Istanbul: Eren Yayıncılık, 1988, p. 84.
49 Naîmâ, Târih, vol. 3, p. 1470; Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 3, p. 1188.
50 Silâhdar Fındıklılı Mehmed, “Zeyl-i Fezleke (1065-22 Ca. 1106 / 1654-7 Şubat 1695): Tahlil ve Metin”, (Ph.D. dissertation), prepared by Nazire Karaçay Türkal, Marmara University, 2012, p. 207; P. Ğ. İncicyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, 2nd ed., translation of notes by Hrand D. Andreasyan, Istanbul: İstanbul Fetih Cemiyeti İstanbul Enstitüsü, 1976, pp. 84-85 (Andreasyan’s note numbered 147); Kevork Pamukciyan, İstanbul Yazıları, edited by Osman Köker, Istanbul: Aras Yayıncılık, 2002, pp. 102-103.
51 Eremya Çelebi, İstanbul Tarihi, pp. 223-226; İncicyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, pp. 84-85.
52 For the mentioned records, see İŞS, 9, 86b/2 (17 Z[ilhicce] 1071/13 Ağustos 1661), 96b/3 (21 Z 1071/17 Ağustos 1661), 96b/4 (21 Z 1071/17 Ağustos 1661), 97a/1-2 (21 Z 1071/17 Ağustos 1661), 140b/1 (25 M[uharrem] 1072/20 Eylül 1661), 140b/3 (21 M 1072/16 Eylül 1661), 247b/1 (28 Cemaziyelevvel 1072/19 Ocak 1662), 253b/2 (10 Cemaziyelâhir 1072/31 Ocak 1662); see also Kenan Yıldız, “1660 İstanbul Yangınının Sosyo-Ekonomik Tahlili” (Ph.D. dissertation), Marmara University, 2012, pp. 174-176.
53 This fire is discussed in a separate section.
54 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, p. 408; “Târih‑i Nihâdî (152b-233a) (Transkripsiyon ve Değerlendirme)” (M.A. thesis), edited by Hande Nalan Özkasap, Marmara University, 2004, p. 61.
55 Antoine Galland, İstanbul’a Ait Günlük Anılar: 1672-1673, edited by Charles Schefer, translated by Nahid Sırrı Örik, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1973, vol. 2, p. 14.
56 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, p. 685.
57 Râşid Mehmed Efendi, Târih‑i Râşid, Istanbul: Matbaa-i Âmire, 1282, vol. 1, p. 353, 359.
58 Râşid, Târih, vol. 1, p. 377.
59 BOA, İE.ML. 42/4035 (5 Z 1093/5 Aralık 1682).
60 Râşid, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 389-90.
61 Râşid, Târih, vol. 1, p. 391.
62 Râşid, Târih.
63 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, p. 1070.
64 Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, p. 441.
65 Râşid, , Târih, vol. 2, p. 442.
66 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, p. 232.
67 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, p. 1145.
68 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, p. 1145; Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, p. 119.
69 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”, pp. 1338-1139.
70 Silâhdar, “Zeyl-i Fezleke”,, p. 1486. For information about the archeological evidence of the reconstruction of the synagogue and an Armenian church, see: Ahmet Refik, On İkinci Asırda İstanbul Hayatı, p. 10.
71 Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, pp. 234-235, 482; Anonim Osmanlı Tarihi (1099-1116/1688-1704), edited by Abdülkadir Özcan, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2000, p. 51.
72 Anonim Osmanlı Tarihi, p. 51; Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, p. 235; Schneider, “Brande in Konstantinopel”, p. 394.
73 Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, p. 287.
74 Eremya Çelebi, İstanbul Tarihi, p. 225.
75 For the documents, see İŞS, 23, 10(2)b/1 (Cemaziyelâhir 1108/Ocak 1697), 27b-28a (18 Receb 1108/10 Şubat 1697) and 60a-b (Şaban 1108/Mart 1697).
76 For the restoration scripts, see: İŞS, 23, 62b/2 (10 Ş 1108/4 Mart 1697) and 63a/1 (10 Şaban 1108/4 Mart 1697).
77 İŞS, 22, 22b/169; Ahmet Refik, On İkinci Asırda, p. 21.
78 Schneider, “Brande in Konstantinopel”, p. 395.
79 Râşid, Târih, vol. 2, p. 523.
80 Silâhdar Fındıklılı Mehmed, “Nusretnâme: Tahlil ve Metin (1106-1133/1695-1721)”, prepared by Mehmet Topal, for (Ph.D. dissertation), prepared by Mehmet Topal, Marmara University; see: Halil İnalcık, “İstanbul’un İncisi Bedestan”, İktisat ve Din, 2nd ed., edited by Mustafa Özel, Istanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 1997, p. 125.
81 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, pp. 84-85.
82 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, pp. 183-184.
83 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, p. 222.
84 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, p. 248.
85 Râşid, Târih, vol. 3, p. 253.
86 BOA, MAD. 2483, p. 248 (3 Zilkade 1121/4 Ocak 1710).
87 Râşid, Târih, vol. 4, p. 33.
88 Râşid, Târih, vol. 4, p. 95.
89 Râşid, Târih, vol. 4, p. 188.
90 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, pp. 18-20.
91 Schneider, “Brande in Konstantinopel”, p. 395.
92 İnciciyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, p. 68.
93 “124 Numaralı Mühimme Defteri (H. 1128-1130)”, (postgraduate thesis), prepared by Ömer Bıyık, Ege University, 2001, pp. 333-334, 336, ruling: 98/339, 99/342.
94 “124 Numaralı Mühimme”, pp. 342-43, ruling: 101/349; 102/350; 102/351.
95 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, pp. 160-161.
96 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, p. 164.
97 Ahmet Refik, On İkinci Asırda, pp. 66-67.
98 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, pp. 441-442.For information about this matter, see: Kenan Yıldız, “Yeni Belgeler Işığında Tulumbacıbaşı Gerçek Davud Ağa ve Tulumbacı Şeritçileri Esnafı”, Kitaplara Vakfedilmiş Bir Ömre Tuhfe: İsmail E. Erünsal’a Armağan, edited by Hatice Aynur, Bilgin Aydın and Mustafa Birol Ülker, Istanbul: Ülke Kitapları, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 557-586.
99 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, p. 442.
100 Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 2, p. 1098.
101 Râşid, Târih, vol. 5, p. 209, 306-307, 309, 429, 441-442; Çelebizâde Âsım, Târih, Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, 1282, p. 11, 68, 77, 120, 178, 224, 243, 254, 255, 267, 272, 370, 374, 409, 416, 491, 295.
102 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, pp. 353-355.
103 Mesut Aydıner (ed.), Subhî Tarihi: Sâmî ve Şâkir Tarihleri ile Birlikte 1730-1744 (İnceleme ve Karşılaştırmalı Metin), Istanbul: Kitabevi, 2007, p. 42, 47.
104 İnciciyan, XVIII. Asırda İstanbul, p. 84.
105 Subhî Tarihi, p. 153.
106 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, p. 355.
107 Subhî Tarihi, p. 164, 171, 179.
108 Subhî Tarihi, p. 164, 171, 179.
109 Subhî Tarihi, p. 212.
110 Subhî Tarihi, pp. 612-614.
111 Subhî Tarihi, pp. 655, 656-657, 661-662, 712-713, 714, 727, 729-730, 755.
112 İzzî Süleyman Efendi, Târih-i İzzî, Istanbul: Raşid ve Vasıf Efendiler Matbaası, 1784, ff. 7a, 24a, 39b-40a.
113 İzzî, Târih, f. 63a.
114 İzzî, Târih, f. 40a, 70a, 142b.
115 İzzî, Târih, f. 216a.
116 İzzî, Târih, f. 218b, 226a, 230a.
117 İzzî, Târih, f. 230b.
118 İzzî, Târih, f. 251b.
119 Schneider, “Brande in Konstantinopel”, p. 397.
120 İzzî, Târih, f. 273a.
121 Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 3, pp. 1210-1211.
122 Ahmed Vâsıf Efendi, Târih, Bulak: Bulak Matbaası, 1219, vol. 1, pp. 23, 27, 29, 32, 39, 44, 55, 56.
123 Vâsıf, Târih, vol. 1, p. 66.
124 Kenan Yıldız, “Üsküdar Şer’iye Sicilleri Işığında Yangınların Sosyo-Ekonomik Sonuçları (1724-1756)”, Uluslararası Üsküdar Sempozyumu V: 1-5 Kasım 2007: Bildiriler, edited by Coşkun Yılmaz, Istanbul: Üsküdar Belediyesi, 2007, vol. 2, p. 205.
125 Vâsıf, Târih, vol. 1, p. 75, 81.
126 Yıldız, “Üsküdar Şer’iye Sicilleri Işığında Yangınlar”, p. 206.
127 Vâsıf, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 147, 209, 211, 226, 227.
128 Derviş Mustafa Efendi, 1782 Yılı Yangınları, edited by Hüsamettin Aksu, Istanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 1994, pp. 21-24.
129 Derviş Mustafa Efendi, 1782 Yılı Yangınları, p. 25
130 For detailed information, see: Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, pp. 365-367; Mehmet Ali Beyhan, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yangınları”, Afetlerin Gölgesinde İstanbul: Tarih Boyunca İstanbul ve Çevresini Etkileyen Faktörler, edited by Said Öztürk, Istanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Çevre Koruma ve Kontrol Daire Başkanlığı Çevre Koruma Müdürlüğü, no date, pp. 216-240.
131 Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, Târih-i Cevdet, Istanbul: Matbaa-i Osmaniye, 1309, vol. 9, p. 26; Kemalettin Kuzucu, “Bâbıâlî Yangınları ve Sosyo-ekonomik Etkileri (1808-1911)” (Ph.D dissertation), Atatürk University, 2000, pp. 13-16.
132 Ahmed Lutfi Efendi, Vak’anüvîs Ahmed Lütfi Efendi Tarihi, edited by Ahmet Hezarfen, Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 122-123.
133 Lutfî, Tarih, vol. 4, p. 780.
134 Lutfî, Tarih, vol. 5, p. 94; vol. 7, pp. 1141-1142; Kuzucu, Bâbıâlî Yangınları, pp. 29-30, 37-41.
135 Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 3, pp. 1228-1338.
136 Havane Dırağ, “1831-1900 Yılları Arasındaki İstanbul Yangınları” (undergraduate thesis), Istanbul University, 1977; Şefika Sürücü, “İstanbul Yangınları (1900-1923)” (undergraduate thesis), Istanbul University, 1978.
137 Ahmed Lutfi Efendi, Vak‘anüvis Ahmed Lûtfi Efendi Tarihi, edited by Münir Aktepe, Istanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1984, vol. 9, p. 181.
138 Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 3, p. 1,222.
139 Lutfî, Târih, edited by M. Münir Aktepe, Istanbul: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1988, vol. 10, p. 135, 145.
140 Lutfî, Târihi, vol. 12, p. 55; Ergin, Mecelle, vol. 3, p. 1,225.
141 Cezar, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yapılarında Tahribat Yapan Yangınlar”, pp. 376-380; Beyhan, “Osmanlı Devrinde İstanbul Yangınları”, pp. 268-277.
142 Tarık Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları: 1923-1965, Istanbul: Sigorta ve Reasürans Şirketler, 1965.
143 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 15-37.
144 Muhittin Soğukoğlu, “Cumhuriyet Döneminde İstanbul Yangınları”, Afetlerin Gölgesinde İstanbul: Tarih Boyunca İstanbul ve Çevresini Etkileyen Faktörler, edited by Said Öztürk, Istanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Çevre Koruma ve Kontrol Daire Başkanlığı Çevre Koruma Müdürlüğü, no date, p. 586.
145 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 38-40.
146 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 53-55.
147 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 109-110.
148 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 117-119.
149 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, p. 141.
150 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, p. 148.
151 Özavcı, İstanbul Yangınları, pp. 154-172.