A Short History of Cülus (Ascension)
The term cülus refers to the ascension ceremonies of Ottoman sultans. In some miniatures, Prophet Sulaiman, who was also a king, is depicted as being seated on a throne. In the Rashidun Caliphate period, the caliphs came to power via a bay’a, a form of election. Starting from the Umayyad period, the Caliphate was transformed into a dynasty, and it continued in this way for centuries. We do not know whether ceremonies were held after these early cülus or not, and there was no established cülus system in the Ottoman Empire. In fact, in the Central Asian tradition the new emperor was determined by kut inancı (the belief that the sultan’s authority was given by the Gök/Celestial God); this situation led to bloody struggles between members of the dynasty.1 Sultan Mehmed II left this issue to the ingenuity and capability of the members of the dynasty, as he did not present any clear solution to it in his famous Law Code.
As in previous Islamic states, certain ceremonies were organized to mark the cülus in the Ottoman Empire. One of them was the bay’ah ceremony, organized at the palace and attended by high-ranking dignitaries, and the sword-girding procession, which was designed for the people. The most spectacular of these ceremonies took place in Istanbul after the conquest of the city. During these ceremonies, there was a combination of sadness and joy, as the mourning for the deceased monarch was also performed at the same time. When a sultan died, the chief harem eunuch would inform the grand vizier, and the latter would go to the palace accompanied by a variety of government and military officials, including kubbe vezirs, the kaptan pasha, the sheikh al-Islam, kazaskers (military judges), defterdars (treasurers), nişancıs (marksmen), the naqib al-ashraf (chief descendant of the Prophet), the qadi of Istanbul, the Janissary agha, the sekbanbaşı, and kul kethudası; they all waited for the new sultan to come out of the Kubbealtı or Sunna Room. However, there were sultans who avoided this procedure and ascended the throne without waiting for the dignitaries.
Since the early seventeenth century, the prince who was to ascend the throne would be taken from the place known as the Şimşirlik by the chief harem eunuch and the silahtar agha to the Chamber of Hırka-i Şerif [the Honored Garment of the Prophet]; from here he would be accompanied by the bay’a of the grand vizier and the sheikh-al-Islam. He would be placed on the throne with his turban and sable coat in front of the Bâbüssaade at an hour that had been determined as auspicious by the chief astrologer.2 At this moment, the naqib al-ashraf and other dignitaries would swear allegiance to the sultan. In the meantime, preparations for the funeral of the deceased sultan would start. Then, the Crimean khans, rikâb-ı Hümayun aghas, and kapıcıbaşı aghas would swear allegiance, in that order. According to one tradition, after the cülus, the new sultan would grow a beard. Moreover, the new sultan would declare the appointment of the grand vizier and his cabinet in the imperial decree that he sent to the grand vizier’s office. All of these participants would be given a hil’at, a decorated gown that was used on state occasions; it was for this reason that these gowns were known as umûm hil’ati (lit. public gown).
For centuries, one of the routine ceremonies that would be carried out was one in which, a few days after the ascension to the throne, the new sultan would go to the religious center known as Eyüpsultan and gird himself with a sword. Initially, after this ceremony, the new sultan would visit the shrines of the deceased sultans; in later periods the visit was confined to the Mausoleum of Sultan Mehmed II. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some of the sultans would wind the turban or headwear that was said to have belonged to Prophet Yusuf around their head. For instance, Murad IV touched the Holy Cloak of the Prophet (Hırka-i Şerif) to his face after the sword-girding ceremony and prayed a two-rakat prayer while wearing the headgear attributed to Prophet Yusuf.3 Ahmed II and Mustafa II, who ascended the throne in Edirne, girded themselves with a sword in the Old Mosque.4 The bay’a ceremony continued to take place after the introduction of the Kanun-ı Esasi (Ottoman constitution of 1876) and the ceremony of allegiance for Murad V and Sultan Reşad took place at the Bâb-ı Seraskeri. The cülus of the new sultan was publicly announced with cannon fire and town criers; in addition, the event was announced to people throughout the country with the proclamation of a ferman, or imperial decree. Meanwhile, festivities were held, sermons were read on behalf of the new sultan, and an order was issued that coins be minted in his name. It was also a tradition that news about the cülus be spread via a “cülus notification,” delivered to friendly and neighboring countries, as well as to countries which were subject to the Ottoman State, such as the Crimean Khanate, Transylvania, and the warlords of Wallachia and Moldavia. Later, envoys of foreign countries would come to offer their congratulations, and reception ceremonies would be held to greet them. As in other formal ceremonies, the teşrifatçıbaşı was responsible for conducting the sword-girding ceremony.
Sword-Girding Ceremony (Sword Procession)
The sword-girding ceremony in Turkish-Islamic states was equivalent to the coronation of kings in the West. Swords maintained their importance in the Ottoman Empire in every period, increasingly becoming the main symbol of the legitimacy of the ruler who ascended the throne. The custom of sword-girding, referred to in official documents and sources as taklîd-i seyf or takallüd-i şemşîr, was practiced by the Ottomans in a way that was similar to that in other Muslim states. However, the date of the earliest such ceremony is unknown. The first Ottoman sultan known to have had himself girded with the sword was Yıldırım Bayezid. The Abbasid Caliph in Cairo Mutawakkil Alallah conferred the title Sultan al-Rum on this sultan to mark the Victory of Niğbolu (Nikopolis) of 1396, and also sent him a sword. It has been said that Yıldırım Bayezid took this sword from the hands of the greatest Sufi of the period, Amir Bukhari, and placed it at his waist. It has been claimed that the first sword-girding ceremony took place in 1421 for the cülus of Murad II in Bursa, again with the sword of Amir Bukhari.5 According to Silahtar Fındıklılı Mehmed Agha, Murad II girded himself with the sword in the Old Mosque in Edirne.6 Even though the same author indicates that Mehmed II had himself girded with a sword at the Old Mosque in Edirne, according to another narrator he underwent this ceremony after the conquest of Istanbul at the location where Eyüp Sultan was buried, assisted by Akşemseddin.7
There were times when a sword-girding ceremony took place to mark a prince departing for a sancak, such as the ceremony held for Şehzade Mustafa, the son of Suleyman the Magnificent. The practice of visiting shrines after the official ceremony began with Ahmed I and continued until the early seventeenth century. After the conquest of Constantinople, the Mausoleum of Eyüpsultan became the site of the sword-girding ceremonies. There is no information regarding the sword-girding ceremonies of Bayezid II or Yavuz Sultan Selim.8 The accuracy of the story that Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent was assisted by the Abbasid caliph Mutawakkil Alallah III in his sword-girding ceremony remains questionable.9 It is also known that Selim II, Murad III, and Mehmed III only visited the shrines of their ancestors together with the state officials in compliance with traditional Ottoman practice and did not participate in any sword-girding ceremonies.10 Concerning Murad III, we are further informed that two weeks after his cülus ceremony, he went to visit Eyüpsultan Mosque and Mausoleum by sea, while the state officials made the same visit by land. He then entered the city from Edirnekapı and visited the mosques of Yavuz Sultan Selim and Fatih Sultan Mehmed, as well as the mausoleums in Şehzade Mosque, where the sons of the late Sultan Suleyman (and this sultan’s uncles), Şehzade Mehmed and Şehzade Cihangir, were buried; he also visited Bayezid II and his father, Selim II.11 The sword-girding ceremony was performed regularly in Istanbul from the era of Ahmed I until the end of the sultanate; the last one was performed for Sultan Mehmed VI (Vahdeddin). The ceremony was not performed for Sultan Murad V, due to his illness.12
The decision about who would carry the sword during the sword-girding ceremony was the most important decision of the ritual. It is known that a few days after the cülus, the takallüd-i seyf was generally carried out by the sheikh al-Islam of the period, or by the naqib al-ashraf. Meanwhile, the new sultan was girded with the sword of the Prophet or that of Caliph Omar, both of which were kept among the holy relics at Topkapı Palace; sometimes one of the swords of sultans such as Osman Ghazi, Sultan Mehmed II, or Sultan Selim I would be used. Murad IV, Mahmud II, and Abdulhamid II girded themselves with two swords. This choice was made by the new sultan.
The sword-girding ceremony consisted of two main elements. The first was the sword procession, which consisted of going to and returning from the venue of the ceremony. The second stage was girding the sultan with one or two of the sacred swords about his waist, with a belief that it would bring good luck. If the trip to the Mausoleum of Eyüpsultan was made by sea, the party would make the return journey by land, and vice versa. The sultans never made both journeys by sea. This would have deprived people from the chance to see the new sultan. As mentioned above, the return of the sultan from Eyüp to the palace was often by road.13 However, exceptions to this were Mahmud I, who went by land and came back by land, and Abdulhamid I, Selim III, Mustafa IV, and Mahmud II, all of whom went by land and returned by sea.
As stated in the official invitation letters for the sword-girding event, the state dignitaries and Kapıkulu ocaklar would come to the palace early in the morning in their official garments and wait for the sultan to pass. First, the asesbaşı and subaşı would parade with their corteges, followed by the sergeants of the Divan-ı hümayun, müteferrikas, çaşnigirs, the altı bölük mounted cavalry, the şikâr aghas, the kapıcıbaşıs, the mîr-i alem, the mirâhur-ı evvel, the çaşnigirbaşı, scholars, sheikhs, treasurers, the reisülküttab, çavuşbaşı, kapıcılar kethüdası, kazasker, viziers, and the grand vizier; these people would wait for the new sultan at the Eyüpsultan Mosque. As an exception, at the sword-girding ceremony of Mahmud II, grand vizier Alemdar Mustafa Pasha took 300 guardsmen with him in case of a riot at the ceremony.
After the morning prayer the new sultan would come to Sinan Paşa Pavilion on the Marmara coast by horse, leaving from Topkapı Palace and going to either the Throne Gate or the Babüsselam. He set off from this location to Eyüp by sea along with the silahtar, çuhadar, rikâbdar, and other musahib aghas in the sultan’s state barge, decorated with three lanterns. The sultan’s state barge was followed by the boats of the chief harem eunuch and some other palace aghas. The new sultan would be welcomed on his boat by the state dignitaries, the grand vizier (who went there by road) and the chief harem eunuch. After the noon prayer was performed and lunch had been eaten at a nearby post, the party would visit the Mausoleum of Eyüpsultan. At this stage of the ceremony the officials known as buçukçu would throw coins minted on behalf of the new sultan.
The sultan would sit in a specially designated place after entering the mausoleum. After the arrival of the grand vizier, sheikh al-Islam, and Janissary agha, Sura Fath from the Qur’an would be read; then the sheikh al-islam, naqib al-ashraf, and the sheikhs of certain religious sects would offer prayers. Later on, the sultan would pray a two-rakat prayer and he would be girded with a sword around his waist. Although there was no clear principle about who would assist the sultan in girding himself, it is known that after Ahmed I the sheikh al-Islam or the naqib al-ashraf would carry out this task. In fact, Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II, Mehmed IV, Süleyman II, Selim III, Abdulhamid I, Sultan Abdulaziz, and Abdulhamid II were assisted by the sheikh al-Islam; Ahmed II, Osman III, Mahmud I, Mustafa IV, Mahmud II, and Sultan Abdulmecid were assisted by the naqib al-ashraf, with Mustafa III and Abdülhamid I being assisted by both. Ahmed III was assisted by a silahtar, the naqib al-ashraf, and a Janissary agha when he ascended the throne because a military uprising had recently occurred; Murad IV was assisted by the famous Sufi scholar Aziz Mahmud Hüdayi, and Sultan Reşad was assisted by the sheikh of the Konya Mevlana Dergâh, Abdülhalim Çelebi. Finally Sultan Mehmed VI (Vahdeddin) was assisted by Senusi Sheikh Seyyid Ahmed eş-Şerif.
The sword-girding ceremony would come to an end after the sultan returned to the Topkapı Palace by road, generally following a route that passed through Edinekapı, Fatih, and Divanyolu; he was then welcomed by the Janissary agha in front of Bâbüssade. When the sultan travelled back by the land route, he would visit the mausoleums of the previous sultans and would arrive in front of the Janissary barracks, known as the Eski Odalar. There he would drink sherbet offered by the altmış birinci cemaat ortası odabaşı (the chief of the sixty-first community of the Janissaries), of whose group the sultan was also symbolically a member; he would fill the sherbet bowl with gold coins after he had drunk from it.
The sword-girding ceremony also required the sacrifice of forty to fifty animals. Exceptionally, at the cülus of Selim III, more than one hundred animals were sacrificed. The meat of the sacrificed animals was given away to the poor by the officials at the Eyüp Mosque and Mausoleum. The Kapıcılar Kethüdası (Chief Steward of the Gatekeepers) and Mirahur agha (Agha of the Stable) would gather up the petitions that people wanted to give to the new sultan on his return from Eyüp. After the sultan arrived at the palace, the petitions would be sent to the grand vizier for his consideration. The inclusion of the receiving of petitions made the sword-girding ceremony an important point of contact for the public. After the ceremony, it was customary to give some money to the boatmen of the Bostancı Ocağı, as well as to the teşrifatçı, pişkeşçi, mataracı, iskemleci, the doormen of the Bâb-ı Hümayun and Bâbüsselâm, and the seccadecibaşı.14
After his cülus, Mahmud II sent the sword of the Prophet from the palace to Bâbüssaade; the silahtar carried the sword on his shoulder, and took it to the naqib al-ashraf, who then transferred the sword to Eyüp Mosque on his shoulder. Sultan Mahmud went to Eyüp by land after visiting the mausoleum of his ancestor Sultan Mehmed II. After performing the noon prayer in the sultan’s gallery of the mosque, Sultan Mahmud continued on to the mausoleum. First he stood up facing the qibla, accompanied by the recitation of the Qur’an and the chanting of takbir by the first imam. Then he girded himself with the Prophet’s sword on his right side, and after praying for a couple of minutes, girded himself with the sword of his great ancestor Osman Ghazi on his left; the new sultan then returned to the palace by sea.15
Even though we do not know much about the sword-girding processions of the classical period, we do know quite a bit about what was done after the abolition of the Janissary corps, particularly after the declaration of the Tanzimat. A few days after his cülus, Mustafa III wanted to have the customary sword-girding ceremony performed at the Mausoleum in Eyüp but, as mentioned above, this time the sword procession was unusual in that the sultan went by land and returned to the palace by sea. It was ordered that in the early morning the grand vizier Koca Ragıb Pasha, the sheikh al-Islam Mehmed Salih Efendi, the kaptan pasha Hacı Ali Pasha, the defterdar Hacı Ahmed Efendi, high-ranking scholars, sheikhs, the leaders of the Janissary corps and the commanders of the yaya kapıkulu corps, the hâcegân-ı Divan, the commanders of the altı bölük (six squadrons), the dergâh-ı âlî kapıcıbaşıs, the gedikli müteferrikas, and sergeants were to dress in their official uniforms and line both sides of the road that stretched from the palace to the Mausoleum of Eyüp. At the moment that had been deemed most auspicious, the new sultan went out of the Middle Gate while the divan sergeants cheered. The sheikh al-Islam, kaptan pasha, and the grand vizier were all standing on the left; however, only the grand vizier Ragıb Pasha bowed and saluted from his horse, while the others cheered. Later on, the procession moved quickly and they reached the Eski Odalar; as custom dictated the altmış birinci cemaat ortası odabaşı offered a bowl of sherbet brought by a silahtar to the sultan; the sultan then drank this, filled the empty bowl with gold coins, and returned it; his sergeants cheered and wished the sultan good health. At this time, three animals were sacrificed. Afterwards, the sultan visited the mausoleum of Sultan Mehmed II, which was in front of the mosque, again accompanied by the cheers of the crowd. The grand vizier and the Janissary agha then had the honor of greeting Sultan Mustafa. The procession marched from Edirnekapı towards Eyüp. After arriving in Eyüp, the convoy lined up on either side of the road and waited to salute, leaving only the grand vizier and naqib al-ashraf to wait at the mausoleum. At the mounting stone, the grand vizier and the Janissary agha took hold of the sultan by his arms and entered the mausoleum, even though the kaptan pasha was in front of them; after the prayer, the sheikh al-Islam helped Mustafa III gird the blessed sword at his waist. At this time, fifty animals were sacrificed. On the way back, the sheikh al-Islam saluted the sultan from inside the mausoleum and the kazaskers saluted from the middle of the courtyard of the mosque. Sultan Mustafa walked up to the mounting stone, supported by the grand vizier and the Janissary agha; the sultan mounted his horse and went to the Bostan Pier, dismounted and got on the zevrakçe-i hümayun (imperial boat), supported by the grand vizier and the Janissary agha. At that moment, Grand Vizier Ragıb Mehmed Pasha kissed the ground, facing the sultan amidst great cheering; the sultan returned to the palace by sea.16 At the sword-girding ceremony that took place on the seventh day after his ascension, Abdulhamid I girded himself with the sword of the Prophet, assisted by the new sheikh al-Islam, who was the former naqib al-ashraf Şerifzade Mehmed Efendi.17
After the abolition of the Janissary corps, some parts of the ceremony changed. During the last century of the Ottoman state, not only the residents of Istanbul, but also people from Edirne, İzmit, and neighboring provinces came to watch the sword-girding procession. Sultan Abdulmecid participated in the sword procession in a Western-style uniform. During the sword procession, twenty animals were sacrificed at each of the following locations: Eyüp, Edirnekapı, Sultan Mehmed II’s Mausoleum, and the Topkapı Palace. The meat from these animals and gold coins were distributed to the people.
At the sword-girding procession of Abdulhamid II, in order to create a traditional atmosphere, peyks and solaks took their place with their sorguçlu serpuş (traditional headwear). The day that the sultan was to gird himself with the sword, the public, consisting of Turks, Arabs, Bosnians, Greeks, Armenians, and Jews, gathered along both sides of the route; foreign ambassadors were also invited. Four tents were erected for the ambassadors at a location above Eyüp, outside the city walls, and lunch was provided. The sultan left Dolmabahçe Palace approximately one hour after the call for noon prayer; at this time, seven cannons were fired from warships on the sea, followed by more cannons firing from Sarayburnu and German and French ships. 120 cannonballs were discharged from the Ottoman ship Mahmudiye. The first three of the sultan’s boats, which carried palace officials and servants, was to lead the way; these were followed by Sultan Abdulhamid’s sultanate boat. All the boatmen were dressed in white robes. The sultan’s family followed two hundred meters behind the sultan’s boat, and the last three boats carried the palace officials. The sultan came to Bostan Pier in Eyüp, and then went to the mausoleum on a white horse, riding along a carpeted path; after entering the mausoleum, the sultan girded himself with the sword of Caliph Omar and went back to the city, via Edirnekapı, on his white Arabian horse. Meanwhile, the roads were prepared by the kavas (beadle) of the palace. The procession consisted of, in order: a few palace officers; six spare horses, led by grooms; administrative and scholarly dignitaries close to the sultan; and one squadron of cavalry, armed with lances. These were followed by high-ranking military officers and sheikhs on their Arabian horses. These people were followed by the Ottoman council of ministers, the sheikh al-Islam, the Head of Şura-yı Devlet (the Council of State) Midhat Pasha, and then Sultan Abdülhamid II. While passing in front of the tent of the foreign ambassadors, the sultan paid compliments to the English ambassador, the most senior of these representatives. Afterwards, he visited the mausoleums of his ancestors Sultan Mehmed II, Yavuz Sultan Selim, and Sultan Abdülmecid. Later, the sultan went to Topkapı Palace following the route that passed by Şehzadebaşı, Beyazıt, and Divanyolu. After resting there for a while, he returned to Dolmabahçe Palace by sea and thus brought the ceremony to an end. This ceremony, which lasted for almost eight-and-half hours, was watched by nearly three hundred thousand people. In the decree that Sultan Abdulhamid issued on the same evening, he stated his pleasure with the interest shown by the people.18
The sword procession of Sultan Mehmed V Reşad was organized in a similar manner, but less elaborately. Mehmet Zeki Pakalın (1972), who witnessed it personally, provides important information about the ceremony: Eyüp Mosque and the Mausoleum were decorated with flags and a throne was covered with precious serasker fabric dating from the era of Ahmed III. This was set up at the right corner of the coffin inside the mausoleum, and the sword of Caliph Omar was placed across the top of the decorated panel. Outside the mausoleum another elaborate place was prepared, with still more serasker fabric and a bundle including a prayer rug embroidered with gold thread dating from the era of Mahmud II. Sultan Mehmed Reşad left from the Dolmabahçe wharf, proceeding to the Golden Horn on the Söğütlü Ferry; the sultan’s flag was raised on the flag pole of the ferry. Upon the departure of the ferry from in front of the palace, the Mesudiye, Âsarıtevfik, Peykişevket, and Fethibülent battleships, flying their processional flags, discharged twenty-one cannon balls each.
Then, the Söğütlü Ferry passed under the bridges and entered the Golden Horn, accompanied by constant applause and cheering; twenty-one cannon balls were fired from each of war ships in front of the Tersane as a salute from the navy. While the Ertuğrul Band played the recently-composed Sultan Reşad March, Sultan Reşad was assisted by Tahir Bey, the captain of the Ghazi Muhtar Paşa and Ertuğrul ships, as he made his way to the pier. The new sultan entered the mosque amongst a cloud of incense coming from censers held by the head türbedar (keeper) of the mausoleum and other türbedars; he made his way through the people and soldiers who were cheering for him. Afterwards, the sultan entered the mausoleum from the small service door next to a small window; this was where the coffin was kept. The sultan then sat in the place that had been prepared for him. At that moment, Sura Fath from the Qur’an was read by the imam. Inside the mausoleum were the princes Ziyaeddin, Necmeddin, and Hilmi and Grand Vizier Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha; the Ottoman ayans, Ghazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, the commander of the Hareket Army, Mahmud Şevket Pasha, Ali Rıza Pasha, and the sheikh al-Islam Sahip Molla were also there. There were some dignitaries from the scholars, civil service, and the military. After Sura Fath had been recited, Sultan Reşad entered the mausoleum, took up the sword on the table that belonged to Caliph Omer, and gave it to one of the grandsons of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, Abdülhalim Çelebi, who then girded it at the waist of the sultan. Later on, Sultan Reşad prayed a two-rakat prayer. After the sakal dua (beard prayer) was recited by the head of the Meclis-i meşâyıh (council of sheikhs) Elifi Efendi, the ceremony was completed. Sultan Reşad got into the car that was parked in front of the mosque as high-ranking military and government dignitaries cheered for him, saying “Long Live the Sultan!” He entered the city from Edirnekapı and visited the mausoleum of Sultan Mehmed II, returning to Dolmabahçe Palace amidst the enthusiastic applause and cheers of the people lining the road. Some stands had been set up so that the people could watch the procession from Eyüp to Edirnekapı comfortably, but the majority of people preferred to watch it from the top of the city walls. According to one foreign observer, “The sultan’s bodyguard procession and the Armenian and Greek women’s car decorated with gold gilding on all sides of it created two parallel lines. At the back of this line Turks, some with turbans and some with fez, some Jews with their kippas, some Armenians with long kalpaks, Arabian sheiks with their white robes, Orthodox Greek priests, Persians, and dervishes followed, in no particular order.”19 The sword procession that was organized for the last sultan of the Ottoman State, Sultan Mehmed Vahdeddin, took place in a similar way.
1 Abdülkadir Özcan, “Türkler’de Kut Geleneği ve Osmanlı Hanedanının Kuruluşu”, Osmanlı Devleti’nin Kuruluş Meseleleri Sempozyumu, Prepared by Azmi Özcan and Mehmet Öz, Bilecik: Bilecik Üniversitesi Yayınları, 2011, pp. 14-21; Abdülkadir Özcan, “Cülûs”, DİA, VIII, 108-114.
2 Ahmed Cevdet, Târih, Istanbul: Matbaa-i Osmaniye, 1309, vol. 4, pp. 235-238.
3 Evliya Çelebi, Seyahatnâme, Istanbul: İkdam Matbaası, 1314, vol. 1, pp. 227 et al.
4 Defterdar Sarı Mehmed Paşa, Zübde-i Vekāyiât, prepared by Abdülkadir Özcan, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1995, p. 398; Anonim Osmanlı Tarihi, prepared by Abdülkadir Özcan, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2000, p. 24; Mehmet Topal, “Silâhdar, Nusretnâme”, PhD Thesis, Marmara University, 2001, pp. 4-5.
5 Solakzâde Mehmed Hemdemî, Târih, Istanbul: Mahmud Bey Matbaası, 1297, p. 139.
6 Silâhdar, Târih, Istanbul: Devlet Matbaası, 1928, vol. 2, p. 580.
7 Mouredgea d’Ohssson, Tableau général de l’Empire Ottoman, Paris: Firmin Didot Freres Editeurs, 1791-1824, vol. 1, p. 305; vol. 7, p. 113 et al.; Tayyarzâde Atâ, Târih, Istanbul 1293, Volume 1, p. 35.
8 Tayyarzâde Atâ Bey states that Bayezid II girded himself with a sword at Eyüp (Târih, vol. 1, p. 35).
9 Evliya Çelebi, Seyahatnâme, vol. 10, p. 38.
10 Selânikî Mustafa Efendi, Târih, prepared by Mehmet İpşirli, Istanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1989, vol. 1, pp. 42, 105-106; vol. 2, pp. 455-456. The section later removed from the first edition of the book of Naîma Mustafa Efendi states that Selim II was girded with a sword in Eyüp Mausoleum. (Târih, prepared by Mehmet İpşirli, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2007, vol. 4, 1909).
11 Selânikî, Târih, vol. 1, pp. 105-106; Zeynep Tarım Ertuğ, XVI. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Devletinde Cülûs ve Cenaze Törenleri, Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı, 1999, p. 77.
12 Osman Nuri, Abdülhamîd-i Sânî ve Devr-i Saltanatı, Istanbul: Kitabhane-i İslâm ve Askerî, 1327, vol. 1, p. 91.
13 Subhî Tarihi, Sâmî ve Şâkir Tarihleri ile Birlikte: İnceleme ve Karşılaştırılmalı Metin, ed. Mesut Aydıner, Istanbul: Kitabevi, 2007, pp. 37-38.
14 İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Devleti’nin Saray Teşkilâtı, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1945, p. 199.
15 Uzunçarşılı, Saray Teşkilâtı, pp. 190-192.
16 Teşrifatçı Defteri’nden naklen Uzunçarşılı, Saray Teşkilâtı, pp. 196-198.
17 Fikret Sarıcaoğlu, Kendi Kaleminden Bir Padişahın Portresi Sultan I. Abdülhamid (1774-1789), Istanbul: Tarih ve Tabiat Vakfı Yayınları, 2001, p. 6.
18 Osman Nuri, Abdülhamîd-i Sânî, vol. 1, pp. 106-109; Hakan T. Karateke, Padişahım Çok Yaşa Osmanlı Devletinin Son Yüzyılında Merasimler, Istanbul: Kitap Yayınevi, 2004, p. 72.
19 Mehmet Zeki Pakalın, Osmanlı Tarih Deyimleri ve Terimleri Sözlüğü, Istanbul: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, 1983, vol. 2, p. 263; Karateke, Padişahım Çok Yaşa, p. 64.