Fifteenth Century

(after 1453)

Apraham of Ankara “Elegy on the Fall of Constantinople”

Kritovoulos of Imbros, “History of Mehmed II”

Sixteenth Century

1534-1546: A Hebrew translation, by the physician Jacob Algabe, of the Spanish romance Amadís de Gaula is printed is by Eliezer Soncino

1545–47: The Pentateuch with Arabic and Persian translations, followed by another Pentateuch edition, with Greek and Spanish versions, in Hebrew characters is printed by Eliezer Soncino

1567: Moses Almosnino composes La Kronika de los Reyes otomanos (printed version: Extremas y grandezas de Constantinopla, Madrid 1638)

1567: Apkar Tbir founds an Armenian Printing House in Istanbul

Seventeenth Century

1627: Nicodemus Metaxas and Patriarch Cyrill Lucaris establish a (short-lived) Greek printing house

1638 (Geneva): the translation of the New Testament in modern Greek by Maximos of Gallipoli is printed in Geneva

1661-1689: Yeremia Chelebi Kömürjian “History of Istanbul” (Stampolay Patmut‘iwn)

1668 (Venice): “The Jewish Bride” (Greek version)

c. 1670:“The Jewish Bride” (Armeno-Turkish version by Yeremia Chelebi Kömürjian)

1675-78: YeremiaChelebi Kömürjian “Four-Hundred-Year Concise History of the Ottoman Sultans” (Patmut‘iwn hamařōt 400 tarua Osmanc‘oc‘ t‘ak‘avorac‘ën), the first Armenian history of the Ottoman Empire

1697: Mekhitar of Sivas arrives in Istanbul

Eighteenth Century

1700: First print of St. Gregory of Narek's “Book of Prayers” (Girk‘ ałotic‘)

1705: New edition of the Armenian Bible (first printed Amsterdam 1666)

1710: Printing of Aghatangelus by Krikor of Merzifon

1717: Foundation of the Mekhitarist Congregation in Venice

1718: Nicholas Mavrocordato composes the “The Leisures of Philotheos” (Philotheou Parerga ; printed Vienna, 1800)

1710-1726: printing of St. Gregory of Narek´s Girk‘ Ałot‘ic‘ by Krikor of Merzifon

1730: Jacob Culi (Yaakov Hulli) publishes the first parts of his Bible commentary Me´am Loez (continued by Isaac Magriso and Isaac Arguete in the 18th Century).

1752: Caspar Ludwig Momarz, Bosporomachia (first printed Leipzig, 1766)

1764: Death of Patriarch Hagop Nalian(b. 1741)who also wrote poems in Turkish under the pseudonymNihadi.

1767 (Venice): “The History of Stavrakis”

1768: Death of Baghdasar Tbir from Istanbul (c1683-1768), poet, teacher and publisher

1791 (Venice): Lucas Injijian, “Observations on New and Old geography” (Tesut‘iwn hamařot hin ew nor ašxarhagrut‘ean,) whose the 5th part contains also a history of Istanbul

1794 (Bassano): Cosimo Comidas Carbognano [Kozmas Gomidas Kömürdjian], Descrizione topografica dello stato presente di Costantinopoli

Nineteenth Century

1811: JacovakyRizos Néroulos, “Korakistika or the The Correction of the Romaic tongue” (Korakistika, ē, Diorthōsis tēs rōmaikēs glōssas ; printed in 1813)

1813 (Paris): Description du Bosphore par le docteur Indjidjian

1816 (Vienna): Jacovaky Rizos Néroulos, "The rape of the Turkey-hen" (Kourkas harpagē),

1827 (Geneva): Jacovaky Rizos-Neroulos, Cours de littérature grecque moderne donnén à Genève,.

1827 (Paris): Grigorios Palaiologos, Esquisses de moeurs turques au XIXe siècle…en forme de dialogues

1836 (Athens): Dimitrios K. Byzantios, «Babel, or The regional corruption of the Greek language» (Hē Babylōnia, ē Hē kata topous diaphthora tēs hellēnikēs glōssēs)

1839 (Athens): Grigorios Palaiologos, “The man of many sufferings” (Ho Polypathēs)

1843: Foundation of the Tēlegraphos tou Vosporou (“The telegraph of the Bosporus”)

1844 (Paris): Alphonse Royer, Les Janissaires (novel; a Bulgarian translation was later serialized in the Tsarigradski Vestnik)

1844: Alexandre Timoni, Nouvelles Promenades dans le Bosphore ou Méditations Bosphoriques

1844: [Patriarch Constantios], Kōnstantinias palaia te neōtera, 2nd edition (first published Venice, 1824; Turkish version Heyet-i sâbıka-i Kostantıniyye, by Yorgaki Petropoulos; Istanbul 1860; French version by M.R.: Constantiniade ou description de Constantinople ancienne et moderne composée par un philolologue et archéologue, Istanbul, 1846; English version by John P. Brown, Ancient and Modern Constantinople, London, 1868)

1848: Foundation of the Tsarigradski Vestnik (“Istanbul messenger”)

1848: Opening of the Théâtre Naoum: first performance Verdi's Macbeth

1849: Wassa Efendi (Vasa Efendi), La mia prigionia. Episodio storico dell'assedio di Venezia (“My Imprisonment, historical episode from the the siege of Venice”) (Tip. A. Domenichini)

1851: Vartan Pasha, Akabi Hikyaesi (Mühendisoğlu Tabxanesi)

1851: Hisarian, Khosrov ew Makruhi (first published as a serial in the journal Panaser)

1851 (London): Stephanos Th. Xenos, The Devil in Turkey (the original Greek version, Ho Diavolos en Tourkia êtoi Skênai en Konstantinoipolei, appeared eleven years later London, 1862)

1852: Masis (“Ararat”) founded by Garabed Ütüjian

1853: Or Yisrael – La Luz de Yisrael founded by Leon Hayim de Castro: first Judaeo-Spanish periodical in Istanbul

1855: L'Assedio di Silistra (music Giacomo Panizza; libretto: Gabriel Naoum)

1855: First Armenian troup of actors formed by Srabion Hekimian.

1856: Foundation of the “Society for Bulgarian Literature” (Obshtina na bŭlgarskata knizhnina)

1858 (-1862): Bŭlgarski Knizhitsi founded by Dimitŭr Mutev

1858: Greek theatre starts with the troop of actors of of Vassilios Andronopoulos: First theatrical performance Saul (Alfieri) in a café of Arnavudköy.

1860: Vasil Drumeff, Neštastna familiya (“The Unhappy Family”) the first Bulgarian novel, published in the Bŭlgarski Knizhitsi.

1861: The first Western Armenian professional theatre (Arevelian tadron) is established in Istanbul. It is directed by Hekimian and Arakel Altınyan

1861: Zoéros Pasha, Eis apogonos tou Timoleontos, ētoi, Patris, mētēr, erōs (“A descendant of Timoleon or Fatherland, mother, love”; drama)

1861 (2nd ed.): Anastasios Pnevmaticas, Ho Fisfisis

1861(-1884): 31 May, first issue of the Arabic language paper Al-Jawā’ib founded by Ahmad Fāris al-Shidyāq (1801-1887)

1862: Foundation of the “Greek Literary Society in Constantinople” (Syllogos)

1863: Alexander Stamatiades, Chios doulē, ē Patris ke Erōs“ inspired by the poem by Theodoros Orphanides (which had obtained an award in Athens in 1858) premiered in the Théâtre Naoum (Turkish version: Hata-i Nisvân yahud Sakız Esirleri)

1865: Foundation of the Jornal Yisraelit by Yehezkel Gabay having a literary supplement Trezoro

1866: Foundation of the Bulgarian Reading Room (Chitalishte) in Istanbul

1866: First publication of the Gospels and the Acts in Gegh translation by Kristoforidhi in Latin alphabet: Katër Ungjillat e Zotit edhe Shelbuesittonë Jesu Krishtit edhe Punët e Apostujvet

1868-9: Christophoros Samartzides, “The mysteries of Constantinople” (Apokrypha Kônstantinoupoleos) 3 parts.: Il commercio orientale; L´Omnibus

1869: Mustafa Celaleddin Pasha, Les Turcs anciens et modernes

1869: Mirza Habib-e Esfahânî, tr. Molière, Le Misanthrope (Tarjume-yi Mizantrop – Guzāriš-i Mardum-guriz), Tasvir-i Efkâr Matbaası.


1870: Publication of the satirical journal Diogène in French, Greek and Turkish by Teodor Kasap

1870: Charles Mismer, Soirées de Constantinople in Istanbul (Typographie et lithographie centrales)

1870: Publication of Athanasios Komnenos Hypselantes's chronicle "The Events after the Conquest" (Ta Meta ten Halōsin; 1453-1789) by the archimandrite Germanos Aphthonides in Istanbul (I.A. Vrettos)

1870(-75): The Bulgarian journal Chitalishte founded by Marko Balabanov

c. 1871: Kritovulos's History of Mehmed II, together with a variety of other sources concerning the Conquest of Constantinople, is published by Philipp Anton Dethier in Istanbul (Typographie et Lithographie Centrales) as part of the Monumenta Hungariae Historica, vol. XXI, pars 1)

1871-72: “The Spectacle of the World and the Tyrant and the persecuted (Temaşai Dünya- Cefakâr ve Cefakeş), adaptation of Ho Polypathēs (vide supra) by E. Misailidis: printing press of E. Misailidis

1871: First print of the Bulgarian “Istanbul Bible” (Tsarigradskata Bibliya): Hagop Boyajian

1872: Foundation of El Tiempo, the first Judaeo-Spanish daily in the Ottoman Empire

1872: Publication of Kostandin Kristoforidhi´s of Elbasan (1827-1895), translation of the New Testament, Dhjata e Re, in Istanbul

1873. First theatrical performances in Judaeo-Spanish in Istanbul (Abraham Behor Evlagón, Yetziat Mitzrayim; La Vendida de Yosef por sus ermanos)

1873: Death of the Armenian poet Bedros Turian (b. 1851)

1873: Petko Slaveykov, “The Spring of the white-legged” (Izvorŭt na belonogata)

1873: Nikola Mikhaylovski, tr., Aventures de Télémaque (Priklyučeniya na Telemaha) into Bulgarian: Promišleniye.

1873: Vasa Efendi, Rose e spine (collection of poems) (Coromila).

1874: Nevianka and Svetoslav by Konstantin Velichkoff (first Bulgarian play, staged in 1872 at the Osmanlı Tiyatrosu)

1874: Foundation of the Persian paper Akhtar in Istanbul by Muhammad Tahir of Tabriz.

1877: “Dzerents” (i.e.), Toros Levoni (second Armenian novel)

1879: Foundation of the “Society for the publication for Albanian Writing” (Shoqëri e të shtypurit shkronja shqip) in Istanbul

1879: Allfabetare e gluhësë shqip

1879-1930: first publication of El Telegrafo; has also serialized novels

1879-1880: Akhtar publishes in instalments extracts from the Persian ambassador Mirza Mohsen Khan Mo‘īnolmolk´s Persian translation of the Télémaque


1880: Hagop Baronian, Ptoyt mə Pōlsoy t‘ałerun mēj (A walk in the quarters of Constantinople)

1880: Theatrikê Bibliothēkē

1883: Srpuhi Düssap, Mayda (epistolary novel)

1884: Foundation of the Armenian daily paper Arevelk‘ (“Orient”)

1884: Foundation of Drita (“Light”), the first Albanian lnaguage paper in the Ottoman Empire which after several editions changes its name into Dituria (“Knowledge”).

1885: La Revue orientale is founded by Adolphe Thalasso

1885: Naim Frasheri’ s translations of the fables of Lafontaine (La Cigale et la Fourmi; Le Corbeau et le Renard) appear in nos 6-11 of the journal Dituria

1885-86: Krikor Zohrab, publishes his short novel “A vanished generation” (Anhetac‘ac serund më)

c1886:Mirza Habib-e Esfāhānī,composes his translation of Haji Baba from Ispahan into Persian

1886 (Bucharest): Naim Bey Frashëri, “Herds and Crops” (Bagëti e bujqësija)

1888: Dikran Gamsaragan, Varžabedin Ałčigə (“The teacher's daughter”; novel; first published in Arevelk‘)

1888-1895 The famous translation of the Iliad into Arabic by Sulaymān al-Bustānī. (1856-1925) is prepared in Istanbul.

1889: Ep. C. Kyriakides,"The Mysteries of Pera" (Ta Apokrypha tou Peran)


1890 (Paris): Wassa Efendi, Bardha de Témal, Scènes de la vie albanaise, (oldest novel written by an Albanian with an Albanian theme)

1891: Hayrenik‘ ed. Arpiar Arpiarian(had come into being as a weekly in 1870 but changed to a daily in 1891).

1893: Death of Mirza Habib-eEsfahânî (b. 1835), poet and translator of the Misanthrope and J. Morier's Adventures of Haji Baba of Isfahan

1893: Foundation of the Greek literary journal Philologikē Ēchō

1895: Foundation of the Serbian paper Carigradski Glasnik, published by Nikodem Sp. Savić

1897: Jacques Loria, Les mystères de Péra (Imp. E. Souma & V. Mango)

1897: Death of the Kurdish poet Heci Qadirî Koyi in Istanbul

1899 (Sofia): Konstantin Velichkoff, Tsarigradski Soneti (“Istanbul Sonnets”; composed during a stay in Istanbul in the early 1890ies).

Twentieth Century

1901 (Paris): Vahan Tekeyan: Hoger (poetry)

1902: Yerukhan (Yervant Sermakeshkhanian), Amira´s daughter (Amirayin ałjikë; serialized novel)

1904: Mirza-Riza-Khan Arfa-ud-Dovleh, Perles d´Orient, 1904.

1906: “Indra” (Diran Tchrakian, Nerashxarh (prose)

1906: Misak Medzarents, Tziadzan.

After 1908

1908: Foundation of the Kürd Teavün ve Terakki Gazetesi, directed by Süleymaniyeli Tevfik “Pirêmerd”: first Kurdish journal published in Istanbul

1908 (Paris): Adolphe Thalasso, Déri sé´adet, ou Stamboul, porte du bonheur, scènes de la vie turque

1908: İzzet Fuad Pasha, Constantinople avant et après la Constitution, A. Zellich fils (Dialogue between a Parisian and a Constantinopolitan)

1908: El Djuguetón a satirical paper founded by Elia Carmona which also publishes serialized novels

1908 (Stockholm): Elsa Lindberg-Dovlette, wife of the Persian ambassador Mirza-Riza-Khan Arfa-ud-Dovleh publishes “Women of the city of the minarets” (Kvinnor från minareternas stad)

1909: El Cudió a sionist paper is founded by David Elnekave. It also publishes serialized novels

1909: The third volume of Zeynol‘ābedin of Marāgha's (d. Istanbul 1911?), Siyāhatnāme-i Ebrāhim Beg a satire on the methods of the old régime in Persia, is printed in Istanbul by Ebuzziya Tevfik. The author´s name appears here for the first time.

1910: Ben-Yitshak Sacerdote (pseudonym?) Refael i Miriam. Novela de los judios de Oriente, considered by some as the first original Judao-Spanish novel

1911: Foundation of the Armenian literary journals Vosdan (Dikran Chögürian and Mikael Shamdanjian) and Shant

1911: Krikor Zohrab, “Life as it is” - Keankn inčpês or ê (stories; Turkish version by Diran Kélekian, Hayat olduğu gibi, 1913)

1911: Yervant Odian, the first parts of the stories of “Comrade Panchuni” appear in the paper Püzantion under the title “A Mission to Dzablvar” (Arrakelut‘iwn më i Tzaplvar)

1911: Celâl Nuri İleri, Cauchemar? (French novel)

1911: Publication of Ghuaze (“Guide”) the first Circassian paper (Turkish-Circassian)

1912: Foundation of the Kurdish Students´Association Hêvi (“Hope”)

1913: Foundation of the Turkish-Kurdish journal Rojî Kurd (“The Kurdish Sun”) in Istanbul. A Kurdish version of a poem by Mehmed Âkif by Kh. Modani in the second issue is considered as the first translation from Turkish into Kurdish

1913: Fuad Temo, Çîrok (first prose tale in Kurdish; published in the first two issues of Roji Kurd; remains unfinished)

1914: foundation of the Armenian literary journal Mehian (“Temple”)

1915: The Armenian writers and poets Krikor Zohrab, Kegham Parseghian, Melkon Gürjian (“Hrant”), Smbad Pürat, Dikran Chögürian, Daniel Varuzhan, “Siamanto”, “Yerukhan” (Yervant Srmakeshkhanlian), “Tlgadintsi”, Rupen Sevag, Rupen Zartarian,are killed after their arrestation (24 April 1915) or during their deportation.

Years of the Armistice

19188-1919): Jîn (“Life”), a Kurdish-Turkish journal founded in Istanbul

1919: Memê Alan, the first Kurdish drama by Abdurrahim Rahmi Hakari - Avdirehîm Rehmiyê Hekarî (1890-1858) is published in Jîin.

1919 Publication of the journal Diyane, in Ottoman-Turkish and in Circassian (in Latin script), by the Çerkes Kadınları Teavün Cemiyeti

1919: Ahmed-i Khani´s Mem û Zîn, the Kurdish national epic, first published in Istanbul.

1920: Amin Faizi, Anjumanî Adibân, the first attempt at a Kurdish literary history.

1920 (Athens): "Tymphristos" Hē Ōraia tou Peran (“Pera Beauty”; novel) Tymphristospseudonym of Dimitrios Papadopoulos

1921/2: Elia Karmona, La Novya Aguna, romanso nasyonal cudyo (Imprimeria del Cugeton)

This article was originally written in English for History of Istanbul and its Turkish translation was published in 2015.

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