During the processes of modernization that took place in the Ottoman State in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a new cultural and artistic environment emerged in Istanbul, the capital city. Faced by the increasingly industrialized Europe, the Ottoman State felt compelled to Westernize; institutional reforms and the Tanzimat Edict of 1839 brought about a radical cultural change. In every field of art, there was experimentation in new forms and techniques, and new categories of art were formed; over time, art education became institutionalized.
Without a doubt, the first stage of modernization, in real terms, occurred in the Ottoman State in the eighteenth century. Even in the early eighteenth century, diplomatic and commercial relations with Europe during the Tulip Era directly influenced the cultural environment; the art of painting blossomed. When Ahmed III (r. 1703–1730) posted Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi to Louis XIV’s palace as an ambassador, he also wanted him to carry out research in science and technology. Indeed, the European books, engravings, and plans that Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi brought to the palace on his return facilitated the recognition of Western culture and art in the palace.1 The expansion of the literary and scientific circle of Ahmed III and Grand Vizier Damat Ibrahim Pasha (d. 1730) brought innovation to every branch of art. Many European artists also came to Istanbul as a result of the increasing diplomatic and trade relations that were being established with European countries. These artists, who worked in the milieu of the foreign embassies, played a primary role in the creation of a new artistic environment in the Ottoman capital. From that time on, the elite in Istanbul were further exposed to Western culture and, as a result, learned more about it.
Innovations in Traditional Book Illustrations
The new art scene that emerged in Istanbul also influenced artistic activity in the palace. Ottoman art got a new lease on life in the brushes of the nakkaş (muralists) who adapted to these artistic influences from Western culture that had begun to permeate society. Certainly, after İbrahim Müteferrika (d. 1745) established the first Ottoman printing press in 1726, the illustration of manuscripts with miniatures gradually declined. After this point, only a limited number of illustrated manuscripts, mostly literary works, continued to be produced. Most of the miniatures that were included in albums consisted of scenes from daily life, with pictures of flowers or figures of fashionably dressed men and women.
In all these examples, the famous nakkaş of the period brought a sense of perspective to the miniature and added dimension to the figures; the coats of paint used became thinner, and tints were included. Works by Levnî (d. 1732) provide examples of this particular artistic environment. Levnî’s miniatures in Surname2—written by the poet Vehbi (d. 1736) to narrate the festivities surrounding the circumcision of Ahmed III’s four sons—are full of innovations and include male and female figures, even portraits of the sultan. The depiction of nature in Surnâme-i Vehbî portrays a new perception of depth; in particular, the shadows from the trees and color tints in the white-clouded sky stand out. The figures are more dimensional; they draw attention with their different expressions and unusual postures. Levnî uses classical portrait patterns of the Ottoman sultans in his Kebîr Musavver Silsilenâme,3 which includes portraits of sultans before Ahmed III; he brings depth to the figures and a natural quality to their facial expressions.4 Single figures of men and women are also the products of this new environment. The figures of men and women playing music dressed in the latest fashion, combing their hair, tying their turbans, holding flowers in their hands, or lying down on a sofa all portray the changing tastes of the period. Levnî’s drawings, which preserve the values of traditional miniature art on the one hand, while bringing novelty on the other, reflect this new phase in Ottoman painting.
Other miniaturists of the period also adapted to these changes. For example, the female and male figures drawn by Levnî’s contemporary Abdullah Buhari are more voluminous and dominant. Buhari freed himself from traditional patterns, defined the shapes of the bodies portrayed, and even managed to reflect the rosiness of skin color. The toning and shading in the compositions are remarkable.5 The scenes of nature that the miniaturists added to their composition when they could find the opportunity were actually attempts to produce landscapes. In most of these examples, Istanbul’s famous gardens and palaces of the period are illustrated. For example, the garden drawings by Abdullah Buhari, which include a mansion and palace and which illustrate the lacquered binding of a text, are indicative that landscape painting was taking root (Picture 1).6 These use a thinner layer of paint than normal, with the work almost becoming a watercolor. The discovery of color values is illustrated not only in the figures and landscapes, but also in still-life compositions. The flowers and fruit that were placed on covers, in albums, and even on woodenware were no longer ornamental motifs, but now reflected how these objects were in nature, with erect stalks or wrinkled leaves. Landscape compositions can be found in other miniatures painted in the second half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century.
Formation of a New Branch of Art: Wall Murals
When the dominance of manuscript illustrations started to wane after the eighteenth century, new branches of art emerged. Kalem işi (hand-drawn) decorations, a traditional decorative art in that period, started to be transformed into wall murals. The baroque and rococo styles that were widespread in European architecture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reached Turkey and significantly influenced architectural decoration. Still-life and landscape pictures placed in baroque and rococo frames superseded the hand-drawn decorations, mostly of vegetal or geometric patterns, that had been on the walls for centuries. Whereas European murals were technically executed as frescos or with oil paints, traditional Ottoman decorative techniques used dry plaster, glue on wood, or paints mixed with water. These continued to be used until the end of the nineteenth century. Another feature that distinguished Ottoman from European artwork was the absence of human figures until the end of the nineteenth century. Such paintings first appeared in the court circles of the capital city Istanbul, but quickly spread throughout the empire, decorating mansions, fountains, and even some mosques and tombs in what must be considered as a new branch of Ottoman art.7
The earliest examples of wall murals in the Ottoman capital started to appear in the second half of the eighteenth century. Wall murals from the reigns of Abdülhamid I (1774–1789), Selim III (1789–1807), and Mahmud II (1808–1839) can be seen in many sections of Topkapı Palace. Landscape paintings occupied the upper sections of the walls in the form of panels or as a strip that ran along the edges of the ceiling. Most of these illustrate images from the Bosphorus or the Golden Horn, and many contain meticulous depictions of mansions, yalıs (seaside residences), garden pavilions, fountain pools, and floral terraces, documenting many structures of Istanbul that no longer exist today. As there was no tendency to deviate from the usage of traditional pigments, similar colors were used; however, Western artistic techniques, such as chiaroscuro and perspective, were implemented. However, the human figure was still not portrayed.
Murals depicting several Istanbul palaces and courtyards can still be seen in the Has Oda (privy chamber) of Selim III and the Valide Sultan Dairesi (apartments of the mother of the sultan) in the harem section of Topkapı Palace. One of the most splendid examples of this new decorative work is the panoramic Istanbul landscape displayed among baroque and rococo decorations along the upper part of the wall in the Valide Sultan Dairesi (Picture 2). Its successful implementation of perspective immediately catches the eye. Soft brushstrokes on the background hills and trees indicate that this was the work of a professional artist. The paintings in Selim III’s chamber must have been painted by the famous court artist Konstantin Kapıdağlı and his assistants.8 There are other works that reveal Kapıdağlı’s talent as a landscape artist; for example, a portrait of Selim III by Konstantin, which was later engraved, can be found in London within a volume that includes city landscapes on the front and back cover painted in the same style as these murals (Picture 3).
The artist’s soft brushstrokes and successful use of light instantly stand out in these landscapes. There are two landscape compositions in the manuscript Dîvân-ı İlhâmî’den Müntehab, written by Selim III under the penname İlhami; this work also includes poems dedicated to Selim III by other poets. These landscapes, attributed to Konstantin, closely resemble the pictures on the landing in the Valide Sultan Dairesi.9 These examples suggest that Konstantin was a great landscape artist as well as a skilled portraitist. He contributed to the development of murals as an artistic form in the palace. The court circle was to take the lead in the acceptance and spread of this new style of architectural decoration. There is no doubt that the decoration templates in the archives of Topkapı Palace, which were brought from Europe in the eighteenth century, were a source of inspiration for this type of design.10
The new decoration program that began in the court environment soon became popular in the capital city. In the same period, similar wall paintings could be found in mansions and yalıs in Istanbul (Picture 4).11 These examples demonstrate that there was a community of artists who created wall murals outside of the court. Growing diplomatic and commercial relations in this period attracted many European ambassadors, traders, travelers, and artists to the Ottoman capital. Referred to as Peintres du Bosphore (the painters of the Bosphorus), these artists achieved fame with their Istanbul landscapes. The European ambassadors in Istanbul commissioned them to make these kinds of paintings.12 Although the European artists differed in origin and the era in which they experienced Istanbul, their murals document Istanbul topography and many structures that no longer exist today. All these artists depicted Istanbul more or less from the same angle, and their paintings were reflective of the same structures and neighborhoods. Undoubtedly, these artists accelerated the incorporation of Western-inspired painting in the Ottoman capital. Indeed, sources mentioned that Istanbul ateliers were haunts for Levantine, non-Muslim, and Muslim artists.13 Therefore, it is natural that the same repertoire was adopted by domestic artists.
Within a short time, the majority of the wall murals throughout the empire included Istanbul landscapes, no matter where they appeared, whether in several regions of Anatolia or in the Balkans, Syria, or Egypt (Picture 5). Views of the sea, ships, and outlying towns can also be found in these paintings. Again, there are no human figures, but in all of these, perspective and chiaroscuro practices are immediately noticeable. Murals proliferated during the reign of Selim III. Close relationships between the capital city and the rising noblemen and gentry in this period contributed to the dissemination of innovations in Istanbul to the provinces. Most often, artists were brought from the capital city to decorate mansions; afterwards, local artists began to adopt this style of decoration. Some sources mention non-Muslim masters being brought from Istanbul for this very purpose. In some examples, a simpler country style was used. Whoever painted these pictures, they were full of innovations, both in content and style.14
The technique and content of the murals changed in the second half of the nineteenth century. Dolmabahçe (1856), Beylerbeyi (1865), and Çırağan (1867) palaces, which were built after the Tanzimat, were decorated with paintings on the walls. Further, ceiling murals, mostly done with oil paints, were introduced. The walls of the Yıldız Palace pavilions were also decorated with paintings. The paintings gradually attained a more European content and style. Panoramic Istanbul views were still widespread and locations such as Kağıthane River, Göksu Meadow, and Kalamış Bay, as well as attractive buildings like Galata Tower, Maiden’s Tower, and Fenerbahçe Lighthouse, were repeatedly illustrated (Picture 6). Even compositions reminiscent of European postcards can be found, including structural types that are foreign to Turkish architecture and exotic plants indigenous to warmer countries. Hunting scenes and game animals are also often pictured. More importantly, the human figure entered murals, although small in size. These innovations were also adopted in the other regions of the empire.15
Murals painted in the second half of the nineteenth century, in terms of technique and style, were entirely in the European style. The similarity in theme and style of these paintings raises the question of whether similar patterns and maybe photographs or engravings were used as models. Unfortunately, documents that discuss the identity of the muralists are insufficient.16 It is likely that in this period, in which both European artists and domestic artists had an influence, the European influence increased and domestic artists tried to keep pace. Indeed, a very similar content and style is evident in the oil-on-canvas paintings of the period. The contribution that murals made in establishing this new concept of art throughout the territory is considerable.
Another important point is that artists found that landscape painting offered the most suitable environment for implementing European-style painting. Throughout the centuries, the human figure, which had existed on folios and in albums, is not to be found in wall murals; in order to implement such European techniques of painting figures, it was necessary to learn anatomy and work with a live model. This would only occur in later years, after art education was institutionalized. However, the innovations that followed, primarily in book illustrations and wall murals, constituted an important stage in the transition from the illustration of texts, which has its roots in the Islamic tradition, to the Western style of painting.
Imperial Portraiture and the Transition to Canvas Painting
Imperial portraiture had existed as a branch of Ottoman art since the fifteenth century, but attained new forms and techniques in the eighteenth century as the sultans, always interested in depicting the Ottoman dynasty, adopted the European visual tradition. The reformist sultans in the second half of the eighteenth century accelerated imperial portraiture, and commissioned portraits from domestic and foreign artists. Portraits in gouache and oil, modeled on European paintings in technique and template, demonstrate that imperial portraits were not only painted for manuscripts or albums, but also for display.17 In fact, records show that some of the portraits appeared in the houses of members of the imperial family.18 In other words, portraits no longer were confined to the manuscripts or albums that were presented to the viziers and grand viziers or kept in the palace treasury: they had gained the quality of portable paintings.
In the second half of the eighteenth century, the artist Rafael/Refail (d. 1780) broke new ground in imperial portraiture. In some sources, he is referred to as Rafael Manas or Manasi; it is also mentioned that he was an architect and a musician, and painted the portraits of Mahmud I (r. 1730–1754), Osman III (r. 1754–1757), Mustafa III (r. 1757–1774), and Abdülhamid I (r. 1774–1789). In addition, we are informed that he received art education in Italy and painted religious compositions for churches.19 An active court artist during the reigns of Mustafa III and Abdülhamid I, Rafael developed a new style for the last four portraits of sultans that he added to Kebîr Musavver Silsilenâme, originally painted by Levnî; he displayed the sultans enthroned and facing forwards, against a monotone, plain background.20 Raphael’s oil portraits on paper represent one of the most important steps in the transition of Ottoman painting from paper to canvas.21 The artist painted large oil-color portraits of both Mustafa III and Abdülhamid I (Picture 7).22
Another type of imperial portrait that emerged during this period is known as the oil-color genealogical tree. In these pictures, which resemble the genealogical tree that was widespread among the landed gentries of Europe, the portraits are placed in medallion frames that are hung in the branches of a tree that covers the entire painting. Portraits are shown attached to each other with a ribbon to represent the dynastic succession; Osman I is usually situated on the topmost branch as the founder of the dynasty, with the ruling sultan being situated at the bottom. In the genealogical tree compositions, produced in large numbers until the mid-nineteenth century, the names of the sultans were written in the Ottoman or Latin alphabet under the medallions. Different languages such as French, English, and Greek were also used. The first three known genealogical paintings were produced in the reign of Abdülhamid I.23 The first (measuring 330 x 220 cm) is located in Gripsholm Palace in Sweden, the second is in the Celsing Manor in the same country, while the third is in Topkapı Palace.24 Sultanahmet Mosque and the Hippodrome are in the background of the trees in the Gripsholm and Topkapı paintings.
Documents concerned with the making of these genealogical trees reveal that the dragoman at the Swedish Embassy of the period, Mouradgea d’Ohsson,25 had the domestic artists in Istanbul copy the portraits in the albums that were being taken out of the palace to be bound; he took these copies to Paris in 1784 to use in his book. It is also evident that the Swedish king Gustav III requested that these portraits be made into large genealogical trees, which were also produced in Paris.26 These large-scale genealogical trees began the tradition of genealogical trees in the Ottoman palace. Indeed, the genealogical tree that d’Ohsson presented to Selim III on his return to Istanbul in 1792 created such excitement that d’Ohsson presented genealogical trees in smaller sizes, painted by the best artists of Istanbul, to the sultan and high-ranking elite.27
The group of genealogical trees that were made after this belongs to the reigns of Mahmud II (1808–1839), Abdülmecid (1839–1861), and Abdülaziz (1861–1876). These portraits are in the form of busts. The most recent genealogical tree known shows a background that is separated into two views: on one side is a view from the Bosphorus, and on the other a view of the pyramids from Cairo (Picture 8). This view might be a reference to Ottoman sovereignty, which continued for some time in Egypt.28 The portraits and the landscapes at the bottom indicate that they are the works of an expert domestic artist.
Ottoman genealogical trees were, of course, inspired by their European counterparts. Although most of them were unsigned, the Ottoman and Greek inscriptions on some suggest that these trees were painted by domestic artists, who likely benefited from the portrait albums that were produced in vast numbers during the period.
The spread of imperial portraits in the second half of the eighteenth century and in the nineteenth century demonstrates that these portraits were presented to various dignitaries, and even to foreign representatives. It is probable that the portraits were used for diplomatic purposes, or even for propaganda. Selim III was the first sultan to have his portrait painted and printed with the aim of distribution. During the reign of Selim III, the Ottoman state entered a process of enlightened modernization that lasted until the early twentieth century. Selim III’s reform program, known as Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order), led to a series of reform movements aimed at a more secular political organization in a more European sense; the result was the Tanzimat Decree of 1839. This program contained new administrative arrangements, new educational and diplomatic techniques, and, more importantly, a large-scale military reform.
Selim III realized that in Europe, having a portrait painted was a sign of power, and that presenting a portrait was a tradition. Therefore, he ordered portraits to be printed and distributed to high dignitaries, embassies, and foreign rulers. This portrait, which was painted by the famous artist Konstantin Kapıdağlı and engraved in black and white and in color, depicts the sultan standing with a three-quarter side view, wearing a red-fur outer coat, with an inner yellow coat; at his waist is a dagger on a jeweled belt, and he is wearing a crested headgear (Picture 9). A view of Tophane Barracks is below the medallion, framing the portrait to signify the military reforms that Selim carried out between 1791 and 1792. Under the portrait is written, “dessiné par Constantin Capudaghlé sujet Ottoman, l’année 1208 gravé par Schiavonetti à Londres.” As indicated, this portrait was painted by Konstantin Kapıdağlı and engraved by Schiavonetti in London.29 An archival document in Topkapı Palace openly states Konstantin was given the task of creating this portrait.30 The portrait, painted in 1803 in the first years of Selim III’s reign, suggests that he knew that in diplomatic exchanges European kings would present each other with portraits. It is also included in a document that the sultan sent to his grand vizier, which states that Selim III and Napoleon had already presented one another with portraits. Other documents suggest that Selim III’s printed portrait reached Napoleon via the Ottoman ambassador Muhib Efendi in Paris.31 As a result of orders given by Selim III during his reign, portraits and a vast number of oil paintings featuring ceremonial scenes were produced.
Selim III wanted to spread the image of the Ottoman dynasty throughout Europe, and requested Konstantin Kapıdağlı to create a series of printed portraits of all the Ottoman sultans for the purpose. Twenty-eight Ottoman sultans are depicted standing, half-length, and with a three-quarter side-view in these portraits. The portraits are each placed in a decorative medallion; under them, in a rectangular frame, are scenes from the lives of the sultans. There is an Ottoman inscription on these frames (Picture 10). Konstantin most likely painted the portraits of the early sultans by relying on portraits by artists like Levnî and on the large-scale genealogical trees mentioned above. However, in real terms, he developed a new European portraiture style, depicting the sultans standing instead of in the traditional seated posture. The smoothness of the features and folds of fabric indicate that Konstantin was an artist who had mastered the Western style of painting.
Unfortunately, after Selim III was dethroned in 1807, the project was put on hold until 1815. In that year, the portraits were printed with the addition of a prologue and informative text about the sultans; Mahmud II ordered the British engraver John Young to do this.32 In the prologue to his book, Young praises Selim III for his great patronage of the arts and for his efforts to overcome the bias against art in the empire. He also praises the artist Konstantin for his skill in design and color. It is believed that as a Greek artist, Konstantin may have been educated in Europe. He was also a well-known artist in Istanbul art circles, not only famous for his portraits, but also for his religious paintings. Mentioned in a number of Ottoman documents, Konstantin received many orders from Selim III and made large oil paintings.33 This indicates that the sultan was interested not only in new artistic techniques, but also in new materials and new functions of art.
One of the paintings ordered by Selim III is a large oil painting depicting a reception ceremony (Picture 11). It illustrates the sultan sitting on a throne, with the grand vizier and viziers lined up beside him. Officials from every rank are standing in ceremonial order to congratulate the sultan. Although this is not signed by the artist, the soft brushstrokes and the elaborate architectural details of the Babüssaade and the second courtyard of Topkapı Palace suggest that this painting was also produced by Konstantin Kapıdağlı. It is logical to assume that such an official ceremonial scene would have been painted by an artist who received important orders from the sultan. Being so close to the royal circle, Konstantin would have painted the real portraits not only the sultan, but also of the grand vizier, viziers, and other dignitaries. A large painting depicting this kind of a reception would not have been hung on the walls of the private sections of the palace, most of which were covered in decorations, but in a state room, like the divan, or in one of the areas that would have been open for official visits. These paintings convey that Selim III was aware of the function of European-style paintings and wanted this awareness to spread to his statesmen. This portrayal of the festive reception, attributed to Kapıdağlı, and the portrait signed by the same artist depicting Selim III seated in his chamber show that paintings were produced for display on the walls.34 There are a number of portraits of Selim III painted by domestic and foreign artists.35
With Mahmud II, a more Western style of depiction can also be observed in the portraits of the Ottoman sultans. Mahmud II tried to institutionalize the reforms that Selim III had introduced and to encourage the public to accept them. The replacement of the turban and kaftan with a European uniform and a fez was one of the regulations introduced for the new-style army, the Asâkir-i Mansûre-i Muhammediye, in 1828. Mahmud II had his portrait in this Western-style uniform hung on the walls of official buildings and ordered that a medallion with his portrait, known as a tasvir-i hümayun, be given to senior officials and foreign ambassadors.36 The portrait, which is a bust of the sultan, measures 5–6 cm in diameter.37 It has been said that Mahmud II had coins with his portraits minted. While there was political opposition to the usage of these portraits in such an official way, Mahmud II’s attempts considerably influenced how art became integrated into society. The sultan was depicted with his new uniform and red fez in all his portraits. An ivory portrait dated 1832, signed by Marras, is the first example of this kind of portrait. Marras, a Spanish-born French artist who was famous for such work and lived in Istanbul, made the first of these miniature ivory portraits (Picture 12). Domestic artists later produced these kinds of portrait medallions.
A new iconography revealed itself in the oil-based portraits painted during the reign of Mahmud II. The sultan’s reforms were emphasized in these portraits, which were painted by domestic and foreign artists following the reforms of 1828. One of the portraits of Mahmud II, which is today on display at Topkapı Palace, is attributed to a domestic artist.38 In this portrait, the sultan is seated on a European-style sofa with an edict in his hand, gesturing forward. A panorama of Istanbul, stretching towards the Historical Peninsula, is discernible in the background. This portrait is attributed to Sebuh Manas (d. 1889), who painted medallions with portraits of the sultan.39
The portraits of Abdülmecid, successor to Mahmud II, are similar to the types of portraits observed during the reign of Mahmud II. For example, a large number of ivory portraits were produced in this period.40 On one such medallion, Sebuh Manas’s name, signature, and the year 1267 (1851) is written in Ottoman script.41 Indeed, it is these signed portraits that reveal the artist’s identity. Sebuh Manas was an artist who worked for the court during the reign of Mahmud II.42 He was posted to the Ottoman embassy in Paris as an interpreter and received art education there. He was even awarded a mecidiye medal for the portraits he painted. Sebuh Manas and his brother Rupen Manas (d. 1875?) were posted to Paris. There, the two brothers painted more oil paintings of the sultan.43 A large oil painting dated and signed “Rubens Manasie 1857” was presented to the Swedish queen and exhibited in Drottningholm Palace in Sweden.44 In this portrait, the sultan is standing on a veranda, with a sword in his left hand, and Istanbul in the background.
A similar portrait of a similar size hangs in Topkapı Palace; the sultan is depicted on a veranda again, but this time he is pointing at a map of the Ottoman state, which symbolizes the lands he controlled (Picture 13).45 The realistic features of the sultan’s face, the skillful brushstrokes, and the use of soft light suggest that Rupen Manas painted this work as well. Rupen Manas was also commissioned to make portraits to be sent to the Ottoman embassies in Europe.
Sultan Abdülmecid also commissioned self-portraits by European artists. He even ordered a series of oil paintings of the sultans, beginning with Osman Gazi.46 Painted by the French artist Jean Portet, all of these portraits are the same size, and present a bust of the sultan in question with his name inscribed at the top in Latin letters.47 Abdülmecid is known to have posed for the English artist Sir David Wilkie (d. 1841).48 This portrait differs from the official portraits of him. The sultan is in a room, in his uniform and white gloves, seated in a relaxed fashion on a European-style sofa, while holding his sword. According to the sources, the sultan requested to be painted in this pose.
The reign of Sultan Abdülaziz was extremely important for Ottoman painting. Abdülaziz was the first Ottoman ruler to visit foreign countries. The courtesy calls he made to Paris, London, and Vienna in 1867 spurred artistic activities. The sultan, who himself enjoyed painting, compiled a collection of European art in his palace, invited many European artists to his palace, and commissioned works from them. Among these European artists, the French artist P. D. Guillemet (d. 1878), who worked in Istanbul, the Polish artist S. Chlebowski (d. 1884), and the Russian artist Ayvazovski (d. 1900) received commissions from the sultan and painted oil portraits of him in various sizes (Picture 14). Abdülaziz and Abdülhamid II (r. 1876–1909) continued to demand the production of ivory medallion portraits during their reigns.49 Another artist who painted portraits on medallions was Viçen Abdullah (d. 1906). Abdullah was from the Armenian family who took photographs for the Ottoman court. Photography became popular in the reign of Abdülaziz, and the Abdullah brothers were declared the official court photographers of this period.
This last period of portraits of Ottoman sultans being painted varies substantially in terms of material, iconography, style, and technique. The Ottomans adopted styles that were popular in European royal portraits. The hero pose, depicting the ruler standing while surrounded by objects that symbolize his military and civil power, retained its popularity until the hegemony of photography in the late periods of Abdülaziz’s reign. More importantly, new techniques and representative European painting styles were adopted by domestic artists. This indicates, once again, how important the patronage of art by the sultan was in the development of Ottoman painting. Large portraits of the sultans that were made to be hung on the walls led to the establishment of monumental paintings in the European sense. It was mostly non-Muslim artists, who had been able to receive a European education, that implemented new techniques in the Ottoman state, particularly in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century portraits of the sultans. However, the monumental-size portraits of the sultans they painted generally remained in the imperial circle, only hung in official buildings after the reign of Mahmud II. New techniques and content gradually dominated not only portraits, but also landscape painting. During the nineteenth century, the most common medium was oil on canvas; art education became institutionalized in particular in the aftermath of the Tanzimat, when modern trends were adopted.
The Beginning of Art Education: Nineteenth-Century Turkish Artists
In the nineteenth century, the beginning of art education under the guidance of the court enabled the training of artists in the Western style. In the technical schools that were established in rapid succession, mathematics, geometry, and technical-drawing classes started to be taught in a modern curriculum. It was these schools that shaped the course of Ottoman art education. The first such schools included the Mühendishane-i Bahrî-i Hümayun (Imperial Naval Engineering School), Mühendishane-i Berrî-i Hümayun (Imperial Military Engineering School), and, later, the Mekteb-i Harbiye-i Şâhâne (Naval School). After the Tanzimat, schools such as the Hendese-i Mülkiye (Civil Engineering) Schools, Mekteb-i Sanayi (Industrial School), Galatasaray Sultanîsi, and Darüşşafaka High School offered education in art. Finally, in 1883, the Sanayi-i Nefise (Fine Arts) School was established. The artists educated in these schools for the most part produced landscapes (Picture 15).50 They depicted various neighborhoods of Istanbul, including their topographical features; they tended to use a single layer of paint, and no human figures were included.
The guiding role of the Ottoman court in establishing Western-style oil painting on canvas should not be underestimated. The greatest influences in the development of Ottoman painting were the art collections compiled in the palace after the period of Sultan Abdülaziz and the activities of the European artists who were invited to the palace. In the reign of Abdülhamid II, artists—such as the Austrian W. Krausz (d. 1916) and the Italians L. Acquarone (d. 1896) and F. Zonaro (d. 1929)—worked for the court, taught art classes, and held exhibitions.51 Thus, they had an important place in the art world of Istanbul. Guillemet established a private art school called Academie de Dessin et de Peinture in his atelier in 1847 with the approval of the sultan.52
The artists who had been sent away to attain an education in art in Europe became the leading representatives of the new style of Western art in the nineteenth-century Ottoman state. In addition to sending artists to Paris for education, Abdülmecid and Abdülaziz—reformist sultans of the post-Tanzimat period—established the Mekteb-i Osmani in Paris to ensure the education of these people. Operating between 1860 and 1874, the school admitted graduates of both military and civil service schools.53 In the records, it is stated that the artists who were sent abroad during Abdülmecid’s reign, for example Ferik Ibrahim Pasha (d. 1891), Hüsnü Yusuf Bey (d. 1861), and Ahmed Emin Bey (d. 1891), painted murals as well as oils on canvas when they returned.54
Şeker Ahmed Pasha (d. 1907) was first educated in Mekteb-i Osmani and then in the Paris Fine Arts Academy; he is the pioneer of artists who went abroad. Şeker Ahmed Pasha attracted the attention of Sultan Abdülaziz at the 1867 Paris World Fair and was assigned a saray nazırı (chamberlain) upon his return. He also was entrusted with compiling the art collection for the palace. Şeker Ahmed Pasha seems to have been influenced by pre-impressionist French academic painting. His landscapes and still-life paintings are characterized the use of deep space and soft but distinct light. However, he also depicts the simplicity and vitality of objects, as if not wanting to break with tradition (Picture 16). Like many nineteenth-century artists, Şeker Ahmed Pasha is known to have painted murals, and his landscapes resemble these murals.55 This artist also organized the first art exhibition to be held in Istanbul; the first was in 1873, and then another was held in 1875.
Süleyman Seyyid (d. 1913) is another artist who was trained in Paris. Although mostly noted for his still-life paintings, Süleyman Seyyid also painted landscapes and portraits; he incorporated the use of figures. He too is an artist whose use of soft brushstrokes with strong light was striking (Picture 17). Both Şeker Ahmed Pasha and Süleyman Seyyid moved away from the landscapists of the nineteenth century, who used photographs or engravings for inspiration.56
Another representative of the artists trained in Paris is Halil Pasha (d. 1939). He differs from the others in his convergence with the impressionists; his use of vivid colors, thick brushstrokes, and flickering light is remarkable (Picture 18). Some Ottoman artists who went to Europe appear to have been influenced by the Orientalist artists who came to Istanbul. For example, Hüseyin Zekai Pasha (d. 1917) is noted for his landscapes, which include historical structures. A photographic quality stands out in his compositions; his use of color and light made him a famous artist of the period (Picture 19). Ahmet Ziya Akbulut, who painted similar compositions and wrote two books on perspective, Amelî Menâzır and Usûl-i Ameliyye-i Fenn-i Menâzır, was a graduate of the Harbiye (Military) College; he was a very strong theoretician.57 Like Hüseyin Zekai Pasha, Akbulut mostly depicted historical districts of Istanbul (Picture 20). Probably the most innovative art of this group is Hoca Ali Rıza (d. 1930). Hoca Ali Rıza painted poetic landscapes with a skillful use of color values. The majority of paintings from artists during this period are of Istanbul landscapes (Picture 21).58 Hoca Ali Rıza created a bridge between the generation of Şeker Ahmed Pasha and that of Süleyman Seyyid and other artists who had been introduced to impressionism in the early twentieth century. For example, Halil Pasha (d. 1939) worked with Gérôme in Paris, but he was heavily influenced by the impressionist movement that was popular in Paris; he introduced impressionist values to Turkish painting.
Most of the artists who were graduates of military colleges were given a post in the palace as yaverân-ı hazret-i şehriyarî (imperial aides-de-camp). It was an honor for these artists to present paintings to the palace. The latest research has revealed that the art education at Enderun-ı Hümayun Mekteb-i Âlîsi (the imperial palace school) was very similar to that at the military and civil-service colleges of the period. It can also be understood that the lecturers at the Enderun school, which continued to provide art education until 1909, were artists who were transferred from the aforementioned military and technical schools. The paintings of these lesser-known artists from Enderun were signed as kullar (Allah’s servant) and mostly consisted of Istanbul landscapes (Picture 22).59
The Institutionalization of Art Education
As has been seen, in the nineteenth century, the sultans Abdülmecid and Abdülaziz sent a number of artists to Europe to be trained; it was these same artists who introduced Western artistic aesthetics to Ottoman painting. However, in order to make more modern breakthroughs, art education needed to be institutionalized throughout the country. This was only accomplished during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II. The attempt to establish a fine arts academy began in 1877 under the leadership of the artist and archaeologist Osman Hamdi Bey (d. 1917). Osman Hamdi Bey was not a military school graduate, but had been educated in Paris. The Ottoman-Russian War meant that his attempt to establish this art academy failed, but in 1883, he was able to establish the Sanayi-i Nefise Mekteb-i Âlî (Imperial Fine Arts School).60 As the founder of both the Museum of Archaeology and the Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, Osman Hamdi Bey has a unique position in Ottoman art.61 He was also a pioneering figure in portrait painting, and his most significant contribution was his depiction of human figures, in particular of women as individuals, in large paintings (Picture 23). When in Paris, Osman Hamdi Bey was influenced by the Orientalist movement and depicted Ottoman décor and clothing in his paintings. However, he did not attempt to create the imaginary mystical Oriental world of the European Orientalists. His realistic décor and figures were part of Ottoman culture.
In addition to European professors like Salvatore Valeri (d. 1946) and Philippo Bello (d. 1911), lecturers like Osman Hamdi, Şeker Ahmed Pasha, and Halil Pasha taught at the Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi. The artists educated there introduced new reformist movements to art in the early twentieth century. After 1885, student exhibitions, which were held annually by the Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, enriched art culture as well. Alexandre Vallaury (d. 1921), the lecturer in architecture at Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, explored the possibility of creating a permanent exhibition space in which to display the works of artists, like the salon exhibitions in Paris; exhibitions were held for three consecutive years, from 1901 to 1903. At first, the exhibitions were held in Passage Oriental (Şark Pasajı) in Beyoğlu, and then in a large commercial building on Posta Avenue (Posta Caddesi). Participants included academy lecturers, European, Levantine, and non-Muslim artists living in Istanbul, and such famous Turkish masters of the period as Osman Hamdi, Şeker Ahmed Pasha, Halil Pasha, and Ahmet Ziya Akbulut.62 The exhibitions were generously supported by the heir to the throne Şehzade (prince) Abdülmecid Efendi (d. 1944), who himself was also a skilled artist. As a poet, musician, and artist, Abdülmecid Efendi offered great support to the arts and artists, thus making a great contribution to the art of the period. He had close friendships with foreign artists, and was influenced by their paintings; however, he did not have the opportunity to receive a formal academic education. The portraits made by Abdülmecid Efendi were important in the period, as they included scenes from daily life and some historical depictions (Picture 24).63 The prince not only supported the exhibitions in Istanbul, but also attended them in person. The fact that the support of the palace was given via the heir to the throne, a man who was also an artist, encouraged activities in the arts. Abdülmecid Efendi was made honorary president of the Osmanlı Ressamlar Cemiyeti (Ottoman Painters Society), established in 1909; he led the way in the publication of art magazines in Turkey by publishing a newspaper.64 The members of this society, most of whom were graduates of Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, were very active in the arts, and announced new movements with the organization of exhibitions. Without a doubt, the artists who graduated from the academy and traveled to Europe for education embraced more reformist movements.
The 1914 generation, also known as the Çallı group, included artists such as Nazmi Ziya (d. 1937), İbrahim Çallı (d. 1960), Hikmet Onat (d. 1977), Feyhaman Duran (d. 1970), Avni Lifij (d. 1927), and Namık Ismail (d. 1935); this generation introduced a new content and style to Turkish painting. Now, not only Istanbul landscapes, but also scenes from daily life, rural activities, and social events became subjects for painting. These artists followed an impressionist approach, using thick brushstrokes and bright light. Actually, this was considered to be a kind of academic impressionism. Nazmi Ziya’s Istanbul landscapes, for example, contain a soft light that spreads among the pastel colors; this has a relationship with Western impressionism (Picture 25). The variety in Namık Ismail’s themes and, more importantly, his portraits’ depiction of the changing image of women in society are part of an important artistic reform (Picture 26). The two portrait artists of the 1914 generation are Avni Lifij and Feyhaman Duran (Pictures 27, 28). Ibrahim Çallı’s lifelong artistic quest introduced diverse themes and techniques to Turkish art (Picture 29). After 1916, this group held exhibitions at the Societa Operaia (Galatasaray Dormitory) almost every year.
Another important event of the period was the founding of the Şişli Atelier in 1917.65 The atelier was established under the leadership of the historian and artist Celal Esat Arseven; the aim was to create paintings to be hung in official buildings or for exhibitions abroad. Artists such as Ibrahim Çallı, Namık Ismail, and Hikmet Onat worked in this atelier; in addition, Abdülmecid Efendi provided great support as an artist. Most of their paintings, which tended to depict scenes from World War I, were exhibited under the name “War Pictures,” and sent to Vienna. Abdülmecid Efendi also participated in this exhibition. This was the first exhibition ever held by Turkish artists in Europe. In 1921, they changed their name to the Türk Ressamlar Cemiyeti (Society of Turkish Artists); this group continued to be active after the promulgation of the republic, and lent its support to the republican projects of the period.
Female artists were also active during this process. The Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi (Girls Fine Arts School) was only established in 1914, and was affiliated with the Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi in 1926. After being trained in this school, female artists such as Celile Hikmet (d. 1956), Müfide Kadri (d. 1911), Belkıs Mustafa (d. 1925), Mihri Müşfik (d. 1954), and Hale Asaf (d. 1938) took up their place in the art world of the period (Picture 30).66
As can be seen, the developments in Ottoman painting in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were facilitated by the court. Artistic events held in European embassies or in the presence of European artists in Istanbul contributed to the efforts to create a new artistic community outside the palace. At the same time, the change in the status of non-Muslims and Levantines in the post-Tanzimat period and the rise of new organizations linking the capital city and the provinces influenced the spread of the cultural change that was being experienced in the capital city. Representing Westernization, modernization, and cultural change to the public was part of a strong cultural policy during the republican period.
1 G. İrepoğlu, “Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Hazine Kütüphanesi’ndeki Batılı Kaynaklar Üzerine Düşünceler,” Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Yıllık, no 1 (1986), pp. 56-72.
2 TSMK, A. 3593.
3 TSMK, A. 3109.
4 For Levnî and his circle, see: Z. Tanındı, “Osmanlı Sanatında Minyatür”.
5 Albüm, Istanbul University Library, T. 9364.
6 TSMK, E.H. 1380.
7 For the basic sources that discuss wall murals in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, see: G. Renda, Batılılaşma Döneminde Türk Resim Sanatı: 1700-1850, Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1977; R. Arık, Batılılaşma Döneminde Anadolu Tasvir Sanatı, Ankara: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 1976; G. Renda, “Westernisms in Ottoman Art Wall Paintings in Ottoman Houses”, The Ottoman House: Papers from the Amasya Symposium, ed. Stanley Ireland and William Bechhoefer, Ankara: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1998, pp. 103-109.
8 For information on Konstantin Kapıdağlı, see: G. Renda, “Ressam Kostantin Kapıdağlı Hakkında Yeni Görüşler,” 19. Yüzyıl İstanbul’unda Sanat Ortamı. Sempozyum Bildirileri, Istanbul: Sanat Tarihi Derneği, 1998, pp. 139-162.
9 G. Renda, “A Manuscript of Art and Poetry: Divan-ı İlhami,” Cultural Horizons: A Festschrift in Honor of Talat S. Halman, ed. J. L. Warner, New York: Syracuse University – Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2001, pp. 247-259.
10 G. İrepoğlu, “Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Hazine Kütüphanesindeki Batılı Kaynaklar Üzerine Düşünceler,” Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi: Yıllık, 1986, no. 1, pp. 56-61; F. İrez, “Topkapı Sarayı Harem Bölümündeki Rokoko Süslemenin Batılı Kaynakları,” Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi: Yıllık, 1990, no. 4, pp. 21-54.
11 Renda, Batılılaşma Döneminde Türk Resim Sanatı, pp. 108-123.
12 A. Boppe, Les Peintres du Bosphore au dix-huitième siêcle, Paris: ACR Edition, 1989.
13 For the artists who came to Turkey and their activities, see: S. Germaner and Z. Inankur, Orientalistlerin İstanbul’u, Istanbul:Türkiye İs Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2002.
14 Renda, “Westernisms in Ottoman Art,” pp. 103-109.
15 Renda, “Westernisms in Ottoman Art,” p. 82-86.
16 Yum, “Son Dönem Saray Yapılarındaki Bazı Tasvirler Üzerine,” Dokuzuncu Milletlerarası Türk Sanatları Kongresi: Bildiriler, Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı, 1995, vol. 3, pp. 543-552.
17 Padişahın Portresi: Tesavir-i Al-i Osman, Istanbul: Türkiye İs Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2000 (exhibition catalogue), pp. 378-463.
18 Padişahın Portresi, pp. 391, 392
19 K. Pamukçiyan, “Ünlü Hassa Ressamı Rapayel,” TT, 1987, no. 40, pp. 28-30. For artists who were members of the Manas family, see: N. Sürbahan, 19. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Sarayında Ressam Manas Ailesi, Ankara 2011, pp. 165-181.
20 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 118.1,2,123.
21 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 121.
22 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 122, 126, 127.
23 For further information on this kind of genealogical tree, see: G. Renda, “Portrenin Son Yüzyılı”, Padişahın Portresi, Istanbul:Türkiye İs Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2000, pp. 444-446
24 Gripsholm Palace (Grh nr. 227); Celsing Manor in Bibi; TSMA, no. 17/130.
25 Tableau Général de l’Empire Ottoman by Mouradgea d’Ohsson was first published in three, and then in five volumes between 1780 and 1820 in Paris.
26 For the genealogical trees in Sweden, see: Padişahın Portresi, p. 398; S. Bağcı, F. Çağman and Z. Tanındı, Osmanlı Resim Sanatı, Istanbul: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, 2006 pp. 282-283. For documents on this topic, see: G. Renda, “Tableau Général de l’Empire Othoman’ın Resimlendirilmesi,” İmparatorluğun Meşalesi – The Torch of the Empire, Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2002, p. 67, footnote: 46.
27 See: G. Renda, “Searching for New Media in eighteenth century Ottoman Painting: Some Archival Sources as Documents,” Arts, Women and Scholars: Studies in Ottoman Society and Culture, Festschrift für Prof. Dr. Hans Georg Majer, ed. S. Praetor and C. Neumann, Istanbul: Simurg, 2002, pp. 451-479.
28 Bağcı, Çağman and Tanındı, Osmanlı Resim Sanatı, p. 283.
29 TSMK, H. 1839, 17/160, 165, 401, 496; Bibliothèque Nationale (N2) and Vienna; the copies can be found in ÖNB Porträtsammlung (35 33/1,8-9a).
30 TSMA, nr. 570/2. The document states that approximately seventy copies were published.
31 In a text written in 1806 by Selim III to the grand vizier, the sultan mentions that a portrait was sent to him by Napoleon and that he wanted to send a large-size portrait in exchange (BOA, HH, 14805). There is only one ring with a Napoleon portrait on it in the Topkapı Palace collection (TSMA, nr. 2/3699). A letter written to the Sublime Porte (BOA, HH, nr. 5881) by the ambassador Muhib Efendi explains in detail how Selim III’s portrait was sent to Napoleon.
32 J. Young, A Series of Portraits of the Emperors of Turkey from the Foundation of the Monarchy to the year 1815; this work was published in London in 1815. There are approximately eighty copies of Young’s album in the Topkapı Palace Museum. (TSMK, H. 2614-2694).
33 Konstantin’s name is written as Constantin Capoudaghlé in French, as Konstantinos Kyzikonos in Greek, and as Konstantin Kapıdağlı in Ottoman sources. His portrait series is referred to as the Kapıdağlı Series here. For his work in Ayios Demetrios church in Kurtuluş, Istanbul, see, Renda: “Ressam Konstantin Hakkında Yeni Görüşler,” 139-162.
34 TSMA, nr. 17/30; Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 134.
35 There are various printed portrait collections depicting the sultan sitting on a throne. In a copy in the French Consulate of Istanbul, the inscription reads, “dessiné et gravé d’après le tableau rapporté de Constantinople en 1807 à S.M. Imperiale par M.P.A. Lambert Conseiller d’Etat. Grégorius dél” (Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 496)
36 Documents in the Ottoman State Archives mention that these were presented to foreign diplomats. BOA, vol. 13, no. 23410, 1253/1838 presentation document. A jeweled box with the sultan’s portrait on it was presented to the Russian chief consul in Alexandria in 1833: BOA, vol. 11, no. 20282, 1248/1833 dated synopsis.
37 Padişahın Portresi, pp. 449-452.
38 For the portraits of Mahmud II painted by European artists, see: Padişahın Portresi, pp. 250-252.
39 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 150.
40 TSMA, no. 17/216, 218, 220, 221, 222; Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 156.
41 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 156.
42 Pamukçiyan “Ünlü Hassa Ressamı Rapayel,” p. 286; Sürbahan, Osmanlı Sarayında Ressam Manas Ailesi, pp. 165-181.
43 After being posted to Paris, Rupen Manas was assigned to Milan as the Ottoman consul. For his works, see: Pamukçiyan, “Ünlü Hassa Ressamı Rapayel,” p. 286; Sürbahan, Osmanlı Sarayında Ressam Manas Ailesi
44 Padişahın Portresi, p. 455.
45 A similar, large portrait depicts the sultan on the stairs of the palace; an Istanbul landscape can be seen in the background. (17/103). This picture has been attributed to the Manas brothers, although it is unsigned.
46 Padişahın Portresi, p. 454, catalogue number 65, 66.
47 TSMA, nr. 17/33-17/52; Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 65-66.
48 Padişahın Portresi, catalogue number 161.
49 Joseph Manas, who painted ivory medallions during this period, was the cousin of Sebuh and Rupen. He was also educated in Paris and received medals from Abdülaziz and Abdülhamid II. An inventory in Istanbul University Library (no. 9079, 34) lists the medals given by Abdülhamid II (see Sürbahan, Osmanlı Sarayında Ressam Manas Ailesi, pp. 165-181).
50 Renda, G., “Nineteenth Century Drawings and Paintings in the Naval Museum in Istanbul,” Seventh International Congress of Turkish Art: Proceedings, Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers, 1990, pp. 191-197.
51 Germaner and Inankur, Orientalistlerin İstanbul’u; Z. Inankur, “Official Artists of the Ottoman Palace,” Art Turc/Turkish Art: 10th International Congress of Turkish Art, 17-23 September 1995, Geneva Fondation Max van Berchem, 1999, pp. 381-388.
52 A. Thalasso, L’Art Ottoman: Les Peintres de Turquie, Paris: Librairie artistique internationale, 1912, p. 11.
53 M. Cezar, Sanatta Batıya Açılış ve Osman Hamdi, Istanbul: Erol Kerim Aksoy Vakfı, 1995, pp. 395-96.
54 For further information on artists who graduated from the military school, the most important sources are Mehmed Esad’s publications. See: Mehmed Esad, Mir’ât-ı Mekteb-i Harbiye, Istanbul: Şirket-i Mürettebiye Matbaası, 1314.
55 P. Erol, “Painting in Turkey in nineteenth and Early twentieth Century,” A History of Turkish Painting, Seattle-London: Palasar SA in Association with University of Washington Press, 1988, pp. 110-111; G. Renda, “Resim ve Heykel,” Osmanlı Uygarlığı, ed. H. İnalcık and G. Renda, Ankara: T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, 2004, pp. 950-951.
56 P. Boyar, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devrinde Türk Ressamları, Ankara: Jandarma Basımevi, 1948, pp. 25-33.
57 Cezar, Sanatta Batıya Açılış, pp. 345-346.
58 See N. Berk, Türk ve Yabancı Resminde İstanbul, Istanbul: Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu, 1977.
59 For the works of Enderun artists in the court collections, see: İhtişam ve Tevazu: Padişahın Ressam Kulları, Istanbul: TBMM Milli Saraylar, 2012 (exhibition catalogue).
60 İhtişam ve Tevazu, pp. 448-475.
61 İhtişam ve Tevazu, pp. 197-360.
62 Thalasso, L’Art Ottoman.
63 For information regarding the painting of Abdülmecid Efendi see Hanedandan Bir Ressam: Abdülmecid Efendi, Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2004 (exhibition catalogue).
64 S. Başkan, Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye’de Resim, Ankara: T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, 1997, pp. 61-65.
65 A. Gören, Türk Resim Sanatında Şişli Atölyesi ve Viyana Sergisi, Istanbul: Şişli Belediyesi İstanbul Resim ve Heykel Müzeleri Derneği, 1997.
66 For general information on the first female artists, see: T. Toros, İlk Kadın Ressamlarımız, Istanbul: Ak Yayınları, 1988; W. Shaw, “Where did Women Go? Female Artists from the Ottoman Empire to the Early Years of the Republic,” Journal of Women’s History, vol. 22, no. 1 (2011), pp. 13-37; B. Pelvanoğlu, Hale Asaf: Türk Resim Sanatında Bir Dönem Noktası, Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2007.