The most important feature of Istanbul, which assumed several different names and identities throughout history, has been its relationship with seas due to its geographical position. This feature turned the city into the center of trade, transportation, literature, art and naturally, sea technology in every period of its existence.

The Ottoman Navy, which had systemically transitioned to sailing boats1 and continued this practice for a long time, woke up from a deep sleep with its Çeşme defeat in 1770 after a long time of stagnation. In accordance with the modernization program initiated by Algerian Ghazi Hasan Pasha, appointed as Kaptan-ı Derya (“Captain of the Sea”), Kalyoncu Kışlası (Barracks of the Galleon Sailors) were built in Kasımpaşa in order to train and discipline the sailors, and kalyonculuk (galleon sailing) emerged as a new military unit and the area known as Levend Çiftliği (Levend Farmlands) was allocated for seamen by Abdülhamid I. Under guidance of foreign shipbuilding engineers working for Ottomans, new ships in European style were built. Hendesehane (School of Mathematics) was founded in The Imperial Arsenal (Tersane-i Âmire) on April 29, 1775 in order to pave the way for technical education for naval officer candidates.2

Selim III wanted to keep the track of the latest developments in sea technology and to apply them in Istanbul, took some kind of inventory of what were needed to be done in the naval area by aid of the reports received by the observers whom he had sent to Europe. Sultan Selim started from legal, administrative and educational aspects and appointed Küçük Hüseyin Pasha in charge of Maritime Affairs.

Some of the innovations brought by this new regulation were classification of vessels according to their sizes, legal framing of discipline, division of labor and personnel affairs of staff, foundation of Ministry of Naval Affairs (Umur-ı Bahriye Nezareti) instead of Shipyard Treasury,3 which was going to finance the naval reforms, and Directorate of the Naval Arsenal (Tersâne Emâneti); establishment of new strategies for recruiting naval crew and marines, rearrangement of pilotage; reorganization of education in the Naval School (Bahriye Mektebi) that consisted of shipbuilding, map and geography departments, building a printing office in The Royal School of Military Engineering (Kara Mühendishanesi) in Hasköy for publication and duplication of text books4 that would help educate seamen and landsmen in subjects like firing mortars, dig sewers, building towers, bastions and bridges and entrenching according to geometry rules.5

In accordance with Bahriye Kanunnâmesi (Naval Code) issued on February 1805, a hospital was founded within The Imperial Arsenal. Ministry of the Navy started providing doctors or surgeons to naval ships when necessary. A medical school was annexed to this hospital within the first months of 1806 but it did not last very long. Afterwards, candidates for surgery and doctorship would be able to serve not just The Imperial Arsenal, but all other establishments in the country.6

1- The drawing (dated 1798) of the big pool in the shipyard which was completed in 1802 (Mahmud Raif)

After maintaining a certain order in legal, administrative and educational infrastructure of naval affairs, Selim III started technical modernization of the Navy. With an efficient division of labor, works were carried out in order to store and use the shipbuilding and caulking materials that were particularly obtained through ocaklık (family estate) or avarız (extraordinary wartime taxes) in the cellars of the Shipyard.7

At the end of the 18th century, timber, which is the most important material for shipbuilding, was mostly provided from Izmit and also from provinces and islands in the vicinity of Istanbul.8 Ottomans were also receiving demands from some European countries like France and Kingdom of Great Britain that suffered from shortage of shipbuilding timber during that period.9

Selim III increased the construction of sailing vessels such as three-hatched galleons, hatch covers, frigates, corvettes, sloops, şehtiyes (small brigs) fire ships, schooners, kırlangıçs (light galleys), trabagos and xebecs.10 This activity paved the way for the construction of new shipyards and the revive of the old shipyard in idle state. These included at first the Imperial Arsenal (Istanbul) and also Lesbos, Sinop, Karadeniz Ereğli, Bartın, Amasra, Misivri, Kalas, Rhodes, Kemer, Cyprus, Lemnos, Bodrum, Gemlik, Kal‘a-i Sultânî (Çanakkale), Silistire, Sohum and Çingâne Port (north of Varna) shipyards. 11

Technology of copper sheathing, developed in Kingdom of Great Britain around the middle of the eighteenth century in order to prevent the damage caused by sea to wooden warships, to reduce reparation expenses and to increase the cruising speed and life of the ship was adopted by the Ottomans with a 30-year delay between 1792 and 1793. Copper works factory was established in Temürhane in May 1796 in order to process the copper plates. 12

2- The Imperial Shipyard (Tersane-i Amire) (Melling)

3- Launching a ship in the Imperial Shipyard (Mahmud Raif)

Two new ship-building yards were built in Hasköy and Ayvansaray. In this way, nine big ships could be built or repaired at the same time. Besides, sheltered buildings were built in Kâğıthane in order to protect inactive fire-ships and other small ships from bad weather conditions. In 1798, previous wooden caulking platforms were replaced with more durable masonry platforms.

Another technology adopted in that period was the dry dock system used by French. In accordance with this system, ships were repaired or built in a dry dock drained of water and then seaward gates were opened and water was let in. Thus, the ship could be floated into water from the dry environment.13 First dry dock was built in the Golden Horn (Haliç) by Swedish engineers between 1797 and 1800.14 Furthermore, important correspondence was carried out with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland between 1803 and 1805 regarding the rent or purchase of steam-powered pumps in order to discharge water from this dry dock. 15

Due to the new ship launching system developed by French engineer Le Brun between 1794 and 1795, ships would not be completely built on land as before. Instead, they would be built on land up to the level of portholes and other upper structure elements would be completed after they were launched. This new method that seems to have lasted about 40 years reduced the pressure landed on timbers during launching as well as provided economic benefit by cutting back on work force.16

Between 1802 and 1803 by the attempts of Küçük Hüseyin Pasha, the old walls that surrounded The Imperial Arsenal were demolished and it was expanded towards Aynalıkavak Palace. Besides, a lengerhane (anchor casting building) for production of anchors and an endazehane (mold loft), where ship models and plans were drawn, was constructed. In order to meet the increasing demand of canvas of sailing vessels, a kirpashane/yelkenhane (sailhouse) was established in Darağacı district between 1795 and 1796.

A mechanic crane was built in order to be used for transportation of the canons cast in Tophane-i Âmire (Imperial Armory) and Hasköy Tophanesi (Hasköy Armory) to Humbaracı Ocağı (Mortar Corps) and lifting large mortar shells from the port and placing them on gun carriages.17

Records called logbooks started to be kept in the ships during that period. It was stipulated that documents called kavâid-i bahriyye (rules of navigation), which includes sailing instructions and regulations, would be kept in the ships in addition to logbooks.18 Besides, all captains were required to carry the book called Kitâb-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation) by Piri Reis and contribute to this book with their new observations and experiences.19 It was also in that period that a central kitchen and catering system that regulated cooking, serving and eating in the ships was established.20 This new system which was first carried out in Bahr-i Zafer21 and Humâ-yi Zafer22 ships put feeding and cooking habits into an order as well as created empty spaces, thus helping more artillery to be loaded, thus increasing the fire power of ships. In this way, rearrangement of the decks and appropriate placement of current tools, guns and similar instruments were regulated.

4- The big crane in the Imperial Shipyard (Moreno)

Selim III’s approach to employ foreign engineers helped the technological breakthrough. Foreign engineers qualified in necessary areas were hired with high salaries. They were employed in the education of local engineers and architects. The most important figure was undoubtedly French engineer Jacques-Balthasard Le Brun, known for the ships he built in Istanbul, apprentices he trained, methods he developed and lessons he gave in Hendesehane (School of Mathematics).23 Another important figure was Swedish engineer Rhode, who constructed the dry dock with his team, built several ships and produced a lot of tools and instruments. 24

After the reign of Selim III, important steps were continued to be taken. Meanwhile, the second dry dock was built between 1821 and 1825 by local architects. These architects gained experience from working with foreign experts in the construction of the first dry dock and they used this experience in the construction of the second dry dock. Mahmudiye Galleon, the renowned 128-gunned vessel, which is stated to be the largest wooden warship of the world by the year of its production in 1829, was completely built by local engineers. 25

Istanbul was again the center of all these developments. In the era of Mahmud II, steam engines were started to be used in 1834 for the first time. This machine was used in the Haddehane (Blooming Mill) within the Shipyard before the ships. Raşid Agha, who was in charge of establishing this facility called Haddehane-i Cedid (New Blooming Mill,) was paid 3000 kurush as salary from the treasury of The Imperial Arsenal. 26

Contrary to general belief, Ottomans were not introduced to steam ships when the ferry called Swift was purchased from United Kingdom. Even in 1825, there were already two steam ships purchased from Europe in the fleet of Mehmet Ali Pasha, who was the Egypt governor of Ottoman Empire at the time. When the Ottoman sultan asked for his help during the uprising in and around the Morea, Mehmed Ali Pasha sent a fleet that also included steam ships. On the other hand, the steamer called Swift (“Speed” or publicly known as “Vapour Boat”) that was purchased from Black, a British merchant, by the Ottomans after their navy was burnt down in Navarino and then the steamer called Hilton Joliffe were the first specimens of this technology in the Ottoman Istanbul. 27

Losses suffered in the raid of Navarino pushed the Ottoman Empire to become closer with the United States. In accordance with the secret article of Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation signed on May 7, 1830 between United States and the Ottoman Empire, United States was going to build and sell war ships to the Ottoman Empire without receiving any profit. However, when the United States Government could not have this article approved by their Senate, they decided to sell two war ships, which were bringing their ambassadors to Istanbul to the Ottomans. Furthermore, with contributions of two shipbuilding engineers Henry Eckford and Foster Rhodes, first domestic paddle steamer called Eser-i Hayır was launched on November 26, 1837, followed by Mesiri-i Bahrî in 1838 and Tair-i Bahrî in 1839 from Aynalıkavak Shipyard.

The world witnessed an important development in shipbuilding technology in 1837. Because the process of mounting equipment such as engines, boilers, shafts, boiler flues, screws/propellers on sailing ships started that year. Even though Ottomans became aware of this technology in 1851 and started working on it upon the affirmative report from the Council of the Navy, these attempts failed due to the problems arising from the physical features and sizes of the sailing ships as well as from the financial problems. First successful attempts were seen in the galleons called Peyk-i Zafer and Şadiye, which were converted through this process in Istanbul in 1854, and frigate called Geyvan-ı Bahri, which was added engine equipment to. 28

In the periods of Sultan Abdülmecid and Sultan Abdülaziz, between 1857 and 1870, the third dry dock was built. Local engineers had great contributions to this dock. First domestic iron steamer called Eser-i Hadid was built in Istanbul Powder Mill (Istanbul Baruthanesi), Little Iron Plant (Küçük Demir Fabrikası) and launched on November 18, 1848. Hull and engines of the vessel were produced from local iron and it was the first in that aspect. 29

Some civil marine establishments for carrying passengers began to emerge in the Golden Horn. This was very important for transportation in Istanbul. Ferries were operated under supervision of institutions like Fevaid-i Osmaniye (Ottoman Maritime Administration) and Şirket-i Hayriyye (literally The Goodwill Company, as the Istanbul Ferry Company was originally called).30 On the other hand, first armor-plated warships in the Golden Horn were seen particularly due to the special efforts of Abdülaziz. Armor-plated warships called Osmaniye, Orhaniye, Mahmudiye and Aziziye, built in the shipbuilding yards of Glasgow, United Kingdom in 1864, were purchased from the United Kingdom in that period. As an administrative reform in addition to the technological reforms, Sultan Abdülaziz abolished the position of kaptanı-deryalık (office of captain of the sea) and founded Ministry of the Navy in 1867. He also modernized Naval School within the framework of a new education program.

Period of Sultan Abdülaziz was a very active period in terms of marine technology. A part of the technological developments within that period were as follows: purchasing turning machines needed for production of rifled gun barrels, starting domestic provision of the iron need of the Shipyard, starting using steel rope in the Navy and purchasing steel rope from United Kingdom for this purpose, manufacturing machine boats - steamboats for big warships, keeping liquid compass, British maps, charts, octants, sextants and logs as inventory stocks in the ships, acceptance of cipher communication method, keeping journals in which all occurrences in the ships were recorded, manufacture of four water boats in the Shipyard instead of propulsion water barges, purchasing instruments and machines that measure the endurance of ship chains and anchors, purchasing 30 machine rifles from Austria and 2000 Winchester brand rifle from USA in order to be used in the Navy, installing telegram lines under water to other Ottoman isles in Crete and Aegean Sea and connecting them to the land telegram lines that had been completed before, assembling the dredger that was brought from France in pieces in the Shipyard and getting it ready for use, placing the first iron floating bridge that was built in the Shipyard between Unkapanı and Azapkapı under supervision of the French, starting production of sea mines in the turning machines of the Shipyard, offering two fire barges into service in order to be used at the sea and coastal fires, starting using Morrison gauge in measurement of ships, transitioning to the new-system breech-loading cannons with plugs instead of the old-system muzzle-loading cannons and keeping statistical tables of every ship that entered and exited the Ottoman ports. Among important foreign experts who served in the Ottoman navy in that period was British naval officer Sir Adolphus Slade (Counsellor Pasha) and British Hobart Pasha. 31

5- The ceremony of launching a galley in the Imperial Shipyard. Scholars and government officials who attended the ceremony were praying next to the big crane while  animals were sacrificed.

When Abdülhamid II ascended to the throne, he found himself in the middle of Ottoman-Russian War (93 War) between 1877 and 1878. As the ruler of a country that was at the verge of financial bankruptcy, he understood that it was not possible to modernize both naval and land forces at the same time. In consideration of this fact, Abdülhamid II chose the new French school, that prioritized defense instead of British-type of policy that was based on offense and followed by Sultan Abdülaziz for the navy. It is also known for a fact that Âlî and Fuad Pashas stated in their last will and testaments that they prioritized a sea force that could respond to coastal defense and that they deemed it appropriate in terms of economical as well as military purposes. He preferred to have a fleet of about fifty vessels, most of which consisted of armored corvette and frigates, to wait in the Golden Horn until the year of 1890. However, he paid attention that these vessels had regular maintenance and got their boilers changed in order to keep them ready for extraordinary circumstances. Moreover, he did not neglect to equip these armored vessels with the new-style Krupp and Nordenfelt artilleries. Failure to get expected results from armored vessels in Ottoman-Greek War of 1897 led him to purchase cruisers. On the other hand, he established a fleet of torpedo boats between 1883 and 1906, which were used by the French sea force. They were low-cost and small but had a high capacity of maneuver and firing and he proceeded to use this fleet for the defense of Ottoman coasts. However, all these endeavors did not give the expected results under the difficult circumstances of Council of Ottoman Revenues and Debts Administration (Düyun-ı Umumiye) that was caused by deficiency of infrastructure and technical staff as well as major borrowings. Despite all unfavorable conditions of the period, Ministry of the Navy and Naval School took successful steps towards adapting to the current conditions and pursuing necessary technological developments. Naval School started giving new courses such as electric, photogrammetry and international law. For the first time, a torpedo class was established.32

First submarines in the Ottoman waters emerged in the era of Abdülhamid II. Two of the first submarines built by cooperation of Scottish engineer George William Garret and gun manufacturer Thorn Nordenfelt were purchased for 11.000 pounds each in that period. Upon being invited to the submarine diving trials that were organized in Copenhagen, Ottoman Empire sent its military attaché to attend the trial as an observer. However, his report was not favorable at all. It was stated that the submarine was not very useful in its current condition and it could only be purchased in case it would be developed and its torpedo rigging was enhanced. Newspapers reported that the first submarine was purchased by the Greek Government and diving trials were started in Salamis Bay. Both as a response to this move and within the scope of general defense strategies, Ottoman Government ordered the second and third submarines. Expenses of the vessels were paid by Hazine-i Hassa (Sultan’s Treasury). According to the agreements, the submarines would be brought to Istanbul in pieces via ships within two and a half months and they would be assembled in Taşkızak Shipyard in the Golden Horn. They encountered several hitches during the assembly of submarines and cruising trials. The result was not as expected. However, it was a first in the history when the submarine named Abdülhamid torpedoed and sank an old ferry placed towards Sarayburnu in front of Dolmabahçe. In other words, a submarine sank a surface ship for the first time. It caused excitement among the public, foreign journalists, ambassadors, military attachés and country representatives who were watching it from both sides of the Bosporus. However, since these vessels could not be improved due to the conditions of the period and poor financial situation, at first they were pulled to the Valide Kızağı in the Golden Horn and then to the barracks in Sütlüce only to be left to their fates.33

After declaration of the Second Constitutional Era, Minister of the Navy Cemal Pasha from the Young Turks realized the importance of submarines in the period leading to the First World War and made important endeavors. He had French and British companies prepared projects, however these works came to a halt when the war started. The important role of the submarines during Gallipoli Campaign drove him to make agreements with the Germans this time and several naval officers were sent to Germany in order to get training on submarines. Throughout that period, due to the war conditions, they could possess only one submarine, formerly known as Turquoiese, which was captured from the French and renamed as Müstecip Onbaşı. However, foundations of Turkish submarining were laid by ensuring the training of future staff and having books and regulations prepared for this matter.34


1 For information about the galleons from the beginning of the eighteenth century to Cesme defeat, please see Yusuf Alperen Aydın, Sultanın Kalyonları: Osmanlı Donanmasının Yelkenli Savaş Gemileri (1701-1770), Istanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2011.

2 Mustafa Kaçar, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Askeri Teknik Eğitimde Modernleşme”, Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, 1998, vol. 2, pp. 82-93.

3 Yavuz Cezar, “Osmanlı Devleti’nin Mali Kurumlarından Tersâne-i Amire Hazinesi ve Defterdarlığı’nın 1805 Tarihli Kuruluş Yasası ve Eki”, İFM, vol. 41, no. 1-4 (1985), pp. 361-388.

4 Kemal Beydilli, Türk Bilim ve Matbaacılık Tarihinde Mühendishane, Mühendishane Matbaası ve Kütüphanesi 1776-1826, Istanbul: Eren Yayıncılık, 1995, p. 99 ed seq.

5 Ali İhsan Gencer, Bahriye’de Yapılan Islahat Hareketleri ve Bahriye Nezareti’nin Kuruluşu (1789-1867), Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2001.

6 Ali İhsan Gencer, Türk Denizcilik Tarihi Araştırmaları, Istanbul: Türkiye Denizciler Sendikası, 1986, p. 54.

7 Tuncay Zorlu, “Tracing Technology through Terminology: Ottoman Nautical Terminology as Attested in the eighteenth Century Archival Sources”, Almagest: International Journal for the History of Scientific Ideas, 2010, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 50-83.

8 Tuncay Zorlu, Innovation and Empire in Turkey: Sultan Selim III and the Modernization of the Ottoman Navy, London: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2011, pp. 15-30.

9 R. G. Albion, Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Problem of the Royal Navy 1652-1862, Hamden: Archon Books, 1965, pp. 332-333. For information about the attempts of the British to provide oak tree from Albania, please see P. K. Crimmin, “A Great Object with Us to Procure This Timber: The Royal Navy’s Search for Ship Timber in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southern Russia, 1803-1815”, International Journal of Maritime History, vol. 4, no. 2 (1992), pp. 83-115.

10 Zorlu, Innovation and Empire in Turkey, p. 111.

11 Enver Ziya Karal, “Osmanlı Tarihine Dair Vesikalar”, TTK Belleten, vol. 4, no. 14-15 (1990), pp. 175-189.

12 Tuncay Zorlu, “Ottoman Experience with Copper-Sheathing of the Warships”, Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences, 2008, vol. 55 (2008), pp. 459-466.

13 R. J. Winklareth, Naval Shipbuilders of the World: From the Age of Sail to the Present Day, London: Chatham, 2000, p. 362.

14 İdris Bostan, “Osmanlı Bahriyesinde Modernleşme Hareketleri I: Tersanede Büyük Havuz İnşası (1794-1800)”, 150. Yılında Tanzimat, ed. Hakkı Dursun Yıldız, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1992, pp. 69-90.

15 Tuncay Zorlu, Innovation and Empire in Turkey: Sultan Selim III and the Modernization of the Ottoman Navy, London and New York: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2011, pp. 42-46.

16 Zorlu, “Osmanlı Teknoloji Tarihinden Bir Kesit: Gemi İndirme Yöntemleri’, Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, vol. 9, no. 1-2 (2009), pp. 89-99.

17 Zorlu, Innovation and Empire in Turkey, pp. 38-56.

18 İdris Bostan, “Kalyonun Yükselişi ve Akdeniz’de Osmanlı Donanması”, Türk Denizcilik Tarihi, ed. Zeki Arıkan and Lütfü Sancar, Ankara: Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı, 2009, vol. 2, p. 22.

19 Ali Haydar Alpagut and Fevzi Kurtoğlu, Türkler’in Deniz Harp Sanatına Hizmetleri, Istanbul: Deniz Matbaası, 1936, p. 48; İ. Bülent Işın, Osmanlı Bahriyesi Kronolojisi 1299-1922, Ankara: Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı, 2004, p. 152.

20 Kemal Beydilli, İlhan Şahin (ed.), Mahmud Râif Efendi ve Nızâm-ı Cedîd’e Dâir Eseri, Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2001, p. 57.

21 S. J. Shaw, “Selim III and the Ottoman Navy”, Turcica: Revu d’Etudes Turques, 1969, vol. 1, p. 220.

22 Alpagut and Kurtoğlu, Türkler’in Deniz Harp Sanatına Hizmetleri, p. 48; Gencer, Bahriye’de Yapılan Islahat Hareketleri, p. 44.

23 Kaçar, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Askeri Teknik Eğitimde Modernleşme Çalışmaları”, pp. 69-137.

24 Bostan, “Tersanede Büyük Havuz İnşası”, pp. 69-90; İdris Bostan, “Osmanlı Bahriyesi’nin Modernleşmesinde Yabancı Uzmanların Rolü (1785-1819)”, TD, 1994, p. 183.

25 Hacer Bulgurcuoğlu, Efsane Gemi Mahmudiye Kalyonu, Istanbul: İstanbul Deniz Müzesi Komutanlığı Piri Reis Araştırma Merkezi, 2009.

26 Nurcan Bal, “XIX. Yüzyılda Osmanlı Bahriyesinde Gemi İnşa Teknolojisinde Değişim: Buharlı Gemiler Dönemi” (MA thesis), Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, 2010, p. 137.

27 Levent Düzcü, “Osmanlıların Sanayi Çağına Adım Atışına Denizcilikten Bir Örnek: Buharlı Gemiye Geçişte Başlıca Parametreler (1828-1856)”, History Studies: International Journal of History, 2013, vol. 5, no. 1 (2013), pp. 115-116.

28 Düzcü, “Buharlı Gemiye Geçişte Başlıca Parametreler”, pp. 121-122.

29 Bal, “Buharlı Gemiler Dönemi”, pp. 48-49.

30 Ahmet Güleryüz, Yandan Çarklıdan Günümüze İstanbul Vapurları, Istanbul: Denizler Kitabevi, 2005, pp. 14-15.

31 Tuncay Zorlu, “Bahriye Nezareti’nin Kuruluşu ve Abdülaziz Döneminde Osmanlı Denizciliği”, Türk Denizcilik Tarihi, ed. Zeki Arıkan and Lütfü Sancar, Istanbul: Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı, 2009, vol. 2, pp. 147-157.

32 Şakir Batmaz, “II. Abdülhamid Devri Osmanlı Bahriyesi”, Türk Denizcilik Tarihi, ed. Zeki Arıkan and Lütfü Sancar, Ankara: Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı, 2009, vol. 2, pp. 159-173.

33 Evren Mercan, “Osmanlı Bahriyesinde İlk Denizaltılar: Abdülhamid ve Abdülmecid”, Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 15 (2012), pp. 163-184; Raşit Metel, Türk Denizaltıcılık Tarihi, II vol., Istanbul: Deniz Kuvvetleri Kumandanlığı, 1960; Konstantin Zhukov and Alexandr Vitol, “The Origins of the Ottoman Submarine Fleet”, The Ottomans and the Sea, ed. Kate Fleet, Roma: Istituto per l’oriente C.A. Nallino, 2001, pp. 221-232.

34 Nevzat Artuç, “Birinci Dünya Savaşı Yıllarında Osmanlı Denizaltı Gücünü Artırma ve Denizaltı Subay-Er Yetiştirme Çabaları”, TİD, vol. 23, no. 2 (2008), pp. 57-74; Evren Mercan, “Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın Stratejik Silahı Denizaltı ve Çanakkale Cephesi’ndeki Rolü”, Türkiye Günlüğü, 2013, no. 113, pp. 39-44; Kemal Koç, “I. Dünya Savaşı’nda Çanakkale Boğazı’nda ve Marmara’da Denizaltı Muharebeleri” (MA thesis), Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, 2012.

This article was translated from Turkish version of History of Istanbul with some editions to be published in a digitalized form in 2019.