Karagöz and Ortaoyunu occupy an important place in traditional Turkish theatre. Both of them emerged and developed in Istanbul.
Georg Jacob, who made significant scholarly contributions to the field of shadow theatres, argues that Turks first met with shadow theatre in Middle Asia Central Asia and he says that it was brought to Asia Minor (Anatolia) during migrations. According to this view, shadow theatre should have been known and played throughout the Asia Minor. According to the sources, shadow theatres started to be played outside Istanbul in some Anatolian cities beginning with the end of the nineteen century (1875).1 Scholars who work on this subject have found connections between shadow theatre and the city of Istanbul. Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil points out that the shadow plays came to Istanbul with the arrival of the Turks.2
On the other hand Metin And who argues that the shadow theatre first came to Istanbul from Egypt during the reign of Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) says that the Sultan Selim brought to Istanbul the shadow play artist whom he watched during the expedition to Egypt the Egypt campaign and thus the Turks met with the shadow theatre. All these views show that shadow theatres first came to Istanbul and started to develop there. During this period shadow theatres were entertainments which were usually played in the streets and in the circumcision festivities of the princes. They were plays entertaining the public by using slang and vulgarity language and actions. Shadow theatres were played in 1539 in the circumcision festivities of the sons of the Sultan Süleyman I (1520-1566) and in 1582 in the circumcision celebrations of the Sultan Murad III’s (1574-1595) son Mehmed.
This type of entertainment which had been called as shadow plays by the end of the sixteenth century started to be known as Karagöz after the beginning of the seventeenth century. It is stated that French Thevenot is the first person who used the term “Karagöz” for this entertainment.3 Thevenot traveled to the East between the years of 1652 and 1657, watched Karagöz shows in Istanbul, and gave information about them in his book titled Relation d’un Voyage Fait au Levant.4
In addition to Thevenot, Italian Pietro della Valle, Gerard de Nerval, Theophile Gauthier, Charles Roland, Edmondo de Amicis and many more travelers and diplomats talk mention in their books about the karagöz shows that they had watched during their visits to Istanbul. Italian explorer Pietro della Valle states in his book Viaggi di Pietro della Valle that “In addition to the shows of actors and jesters, shadows which were lightened from behind and reflected on a dyed paper were played in coffee houses during the month of Ramadan. Unlike the ones displayed in front of the palaces of Napoli and the Square of Navone, these shadow shows were dubbed by the shadow player who changed his voice and imitated the sounds of different languages and accents. In these shows male and female relations were openly exhibited.” Then the author points out that “these shows were too brazen to be exhibited in front of the general public in such a religious holiday.”5
Karagöz shows exhibit a great development and change after the seventeenth century. The plays which attained a new structure were formed from four sections, which were a prologue (öndeyiş), a dialogue (söyleşi), the main play (fasıl), and an epilogue or final. Every section constitutes a unity within itself. Dialogues appropriate to the subject of the play were developed and new and different characters were created. Shows written on specific subjects started to be played. Caricatured depictions compatible with the new characters were developed and the best samples of the leather-craft which was influenced by the arts of miniature drawing and painting were created. These depictions and showpieces were embroidered in the best way and dyed by natural paints with vivid colors.
Istanbul was acity in the Ottoman Empire where various societies communities from different cultures, religious cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds, and with different languages lived were living. This complex social structure became the most important source for the show types like karagöz and orta oyunu. Representatives of various communities that lived in Istanbul took part on karagöz screens. Characters from the Greek, Arab, Armenian, Jewish, Persian, Albanian, Laz, and Kurdish communities were reflected on to the karagöz screens by their cultural and social structures, behavioral profiles, their way of dressings, their professions, music and entertainment, and way of speaking. Tiryaki, Matiz, Tuzsuz Deli Bekir, Çelebi, Muhacir, Beberuhi took part on karagöz screens curtain by the behavioral characteristics, dressing styles, and accents of the social communities they represented; and local figures such as Kastamonulu Baba Himmet and Kayserili Efe reflected their local cultures, behavioral features, and ways of speaking on the karagöz screen curtain.
Hacivat represented the educated higher classes upper class; Karagöz represented uneducated, ignorant, and ill-mannered wide public classes lower class. Tuzsuz ayyaş, Drunkard, represented the aggressive tough guy local strongman; Tiryaki, the addict or chain smoker, represented the addicts of drugs and narcotics opium addicts; and zennes zenne usually represented the immoral and cheating women a woman of loose morals. The contradictions among the characters of the karagöz screen curtain originating from their varying social, cultural and religious backgrounds caused the audiences have fun. That the audiences from various cultural backgrounds were entertained by the same jokes and humors created a collective entertainment culture in the Istanbul society in particular and in the Ottoman society in general.
Language is one of the important factors of karagöz which helped the audience laugh. Evliya Çelebi talks about 147 different languages spoken in Istanbul.6 The contradictions between the languages became a source for the karagöz shows. Karagöz plays do not employ fluent and regular dialogues, but rather conflicting ones. Hacivat wants and starts a chat, but Karagöz interrupts it. He either does not understand what Hacivat meant or misunderstands him. He takes the words wrongly and interprets them with rude and obscene statements. Other characters of the plays are also in contradiction with Karagöz. They cannot establish a dialogue with him. This creates the laughs in karagöz shows.
Women’s life style in the Ottoman society and their relationship with men are reflected in the karagöz shows in a different way than they were in the real life. Women Woman who in the real life could not even go outside their home leave her home without the permission of their her husbands husband and followed a religious dress code were characterized in the plays as morally weak, independent, and lascivious types characters. For example, zenne in the play of Mandıra goes into the home of Karagöz whom she sees in the street; in the play of Kanlı Nigar she lives has an affair with men; and in the play of Karagöz’ün Bekçiliği, she invites men into her home.
Karagöz screen curtain is a mirror reflecting all the characters of Istanbul society along with their customs and traditions. And neither a crooked character nor an awkward event is missed by this mirror.7 Karagöz screen harshly criticizes the government officials who deceive people, hinder their services, and accept bribes from them and janissaries who oppress people and do not want to go to fight in the battle field. The critiques get maturely welcomed and then the culprits are punished by the Sultan. Criticisms rose during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In 1762, enjoying the limitless freedom provided for them, the Jewish and Greek players teased the positions of the grand Vizier and other high ranking government officials and they even mocked the Sultan during the festivities of the birth of Sultan Selim III.8
Sometimes it can be seen that even the sultans joined the dialogues of the artists which took place during the play just for fun. When the well-known karagöz artist Hafız Bey was performing the play titled Karagöz’ün Ağalığı in the presence of the Sultan Selim III (1789-1807), Hacivat who played the role of chief steward of Karagöz in the play buys some male and female slaves and brings them to landlord Karagöz’s mansion. The landlord talks to a slave called Selim:
Selim III responds immediately just for the fun of it:
- Yes, O Majesty!
Then Hacivat turns to Karagöz and says:
- O Karagöz! You made such a big mistake in your speech in the esteemed presence that it can never be forgiven. Our majesty allowed you go to pilgrimage. Now you will repent for your mistake and go to pilgrimage.
And then Hacivat puts out the candles behind the screen.
Even though Selim III says:
- Hafız let him continue his play. By Allah, I am not offended by his speech. I just wanted to have some fun. Do not stop.
But Hafız replies saying:
- May Allah the Almighty extend your life! My majesty, please forgive me. However I should not have done that mistake. Since I have done it, I have nothing else to say.
Then he repents and goes to pilgrimage.9
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the most successful period for Karagöz. As a result of sultans and administrators special attention to entertainment, especially the festivities organized in Istanbul and the Ramadan entertainments provided the most appropriate environment for the frequent presentation of the Karagöz shows. Adoption of karagöz shows by the administrators and the public as an important factor of entertainment gave the karagöz artists the opportunity to present their plays in the presence of the sultan, high ranking government officials in the palace and to the affluent families in their mansions, and to the general public in coffee houses, parks, and public gardens.
During the sultanate of Ahmed III (1703-1730) all night long shows and entertainments were organized at Sadabat. Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha would give feasts in the Garden of Vizier and in Kandilli Garden in Topkapı. In those feasts and entertainments karagöz shows were presented along with other kind of entertainments.10
In his book Osmanlı’da Gündelik Yaşam, Raphaela Lewis points out how much attention was paid to karagöz shows in Istanbul saying that “None of the common entertainments were as peculiar as karagöz shadow shows to Ramadan nights presented in both wealthy houses and public coffee houses. Every district had its own karagöz show.”11 In his book, the author also provides information about karagöz shows, its presentation, the screen, and depictions.
It is stated in foreign sources that all streets of Istanbul would turn into a theatre stage; that the players would present their shows in the streets; and that mocking the government officials would be taken kindly in those festivals.
The gradual weakening of the Ottoman Empire and the steady decline in the economic and social structure negatively affected the entertainment life in Istanbul. Karagöz artists’ criticisms were not taken so kindly anymore and they even started to be banned. The prohibitions which started during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid and continued during the period of (1839-1861) Abdülhamid II (1876-1909) were especially applied upon karagöz artists who usually presented their shows in coffee houses, parks, and public gardens, because they made political and social criticisms and critiqued the injustices.
The life of Istanbul also took its place in karagöz shows. The subjects of the plays were usually inspired from Istanbul and from the events taking place in Istanbul. Ağalık depicts the slave trade in Istanbul’s slave market; Büyük Evlenme depicts the magnificient marriage ceremonies in İstanbul; Orman is about the dangers which one might face when going outside İstanbul; Şairler illustrates the folk poets’ altercations in the coffee houses; Kayık is about the daily adventures of the Golden Horn and Bosporus; Cambazlar is about the interesting ceremonies of the guilds; Kanlı Kavak depicts Karagöz’s reaction against superstitions and false beliefs; Kanlı Nigâr is about the old dens of vices in Istanbul; Tahmis illustrates the coffee grinders in Tahtakale; the play Karagöz’ün Hekimliği, which belongs to later periods, is about fake doctors; and Eczane portrays the funny state of karagöz who had no knowledge about medicine.
Karagöz’s engagement with different kinds of occupations in the plays such as, watchman, swing operator, clerk, gardener, grocer, pharmacist, doctor, coffee grinder, wrestler, poet etc., is the result of the variety of the occupations in Istanbul. In his Seyahatname, Evliya Çelebi speaks about hundreds of different jobs existing in Istanbul.12
The These people from various nations ethnic origins living in Istanbul, such as Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians, Persians, and Turks and other local societies had their own dressing codes in accordance with their traditions, customs, beliefs, and social status. Government officials and tradesmen would also dress according to their position and the job that they were performing. This plurality of dressing codes took its part in karagöz shows and created and added a distinct appearance and liveliness to the shows.
As in all professional guilds, the branches (unions) of artists and players were also organized in a structure consisting of a warden (kahya), a master (usta), a headworker (kalfa), and apprentices apprentice (çırak). These branches would meet at certain places in Istanbul. Karagöz players who used to meet at a coffee house in a large commercial building called Kadınhanı in Tahtakale later changed their meeting place to another coffee house in Baltacı Hanı. The warden of the guild (kahya) would sit in the coffee house, accept work orders and bargain for them.
We learn that almost all of the old karagöz players whose names are mentioned in the sources lived and performed their art in Istanbul. We can enumerate the following names among the well-known karagöz players: Kör Hasan (lived during the period of Yıldırım Bayezid’s sultanate, in some sources it is stated that he lived in Ahmed I’s period), Şengül Çelebi, Abdal Çelebi, Kör Musluoğlu, Ahmed (also known as Dreamy Gypsy), Bekçi Mehmed, Şerbetçi Emin, Kasımpaşalı Hafız Ali Rıza Bey, Hayalî Berber Said Efendi, Hayalî Hamid, Arsen, Rıza Efendi (known as “Abdülaziz’s Karagöz player”), Abdürrezzak, Aktar Rıza, Kantarcı Hakkı, Kâtip Salih, Şair Ömer, Şeyh Fehmi Efendi, Yüzbaşı Mehmed Bey. These karagöz players were known as “Huzur (Presence) Karagöz Players” for they performed their art in the palace in the presence of the sultan and his friends and in the mansions and cottages in the presence of high ranking government officials. In addition to the above mentioned names, we can give the following names among the karagöz players: Aktar Mehmed Zeki Efendi, Arap Kemal, Arap Ömer, Baba Müştak, Bedestenli Mehmed Efendi, Behiç Efendi, Bogos Efendi, Cerrah Salih Efendi, Çilingir Ohannes Efendi, Darphaneli Hafız Efendi, Defterhaneli Şefik, Enderunlu Hakkı Efendi, Enderunlu Tevfik Efendi, Hacı Yorgi, Hafız Ahmed, Hafız Aşkî, Hayalcibaşı Yusuf, Hayalî İsmet Efendi, Hayalî Memduh Bey, Hayalküpü Emin Ağa, İki Yanlı Kevork, Kâtip Ravi, Komik Saffet, Kör İmam, Kör Mehmed, Mevlanakapılı Ahmed, Miralay Mehmed Ali Bey, Mücellid İbrahim, Müştak Baba, Pişekâr Küçük İsmail, Rasim Efendi, Saffet Efendi, Sefer Mehmed Efendi, Sıracalı İsmail Efendi, Sobacı Osman Efendi, Şekerci Derviş, Tahir Efendi, Takfur, Usturacı Mustafa, Yemenici Andon, Yorgancı Abdullah Efendi.
The karagöz shows in Istanbul would usually be performed in open spaces like public parks and gardens, squares, in palaces and mansions, and especially in the coffee houses. The shows held in palaces were for the sultan and his friends and the ones performed in mansions were for the pashas, viziers, and foreign diplomats. In circumcision celebrations karagöz shows were played in the large rooms of the houses or they were played in the garden at night. Especially in Ramadan and during festivities, the streets, public parks and gardens of Istanbul would turn into the places where karagöz shows were most extensively performed. Aksaray, Atmeydanı, Beyazıt, Boğaziçi, Cerrahpaşa Street, the garden across the Davutpaşa School, Çamlıca, the Golden Horn, Kadıköy docks, Kâğıthane, Okmeydanı, Samatya, Sultanahmet Municipality Garden, Tahtakale and Tophane were the open places where karagöz shows were performed.
The following places are mentioned among the closed spaces where karagöz shows were performed: Mahmud Ağa Coffee House in Çeşme Square, Direklerarası, İskerup Hanı, Trabzonlu Kâmil Efendi Casino in Kasımpaşa, Muzıka-i Hümayun (Imperial Band), Nev-icad Hayal Theater, Arif’s Coffee House on Sultanahmet Divanyolu, Meserret Coffee House in Sultanahmet, Süleymanpaşa Hanı, Fevziye Coffee House Şehzadebaşı, Mehmed Efendi Coffee House, Şems Coffee House, Şekerci Hanı Tevkii, Divan-ı hümayun, Rıza Efendi Coffee House in Cihangir / Tophane, Taşçıbaşı Coffee House on Üsküdar Çarşı Yolu, Ottoman Coffee House in Vezneciler, Dilküşâ Coffee House in Yeşil Tulumba, Çınarlı Coffee House on Zeyrek Yokuşu.
In addition to them, the districts such as Atlama, Beşiktaş, Eyüp, Fındıklı, Horhor, Kadırga Limanı, Kocamustafapaşa, Saraçhanebaşı, Şehremini, Taşkasap, Tatavla, Vezneciler, Yeşiltulumba, and Yusufpaşa were also among the places where karagöz shows were performed.
Ortaoyunu which was played in the middle of an area and watched by the people circling around it is another type of traditional theatre which was born and developed in Istanbul. According to the information provided by the researchers, groups consisting of the players who performed imitations with music, jesters (curcunabaz), and dancers performed shows in Ottoman festivals. First those who were expert in imitation and dancing would perform their shows called kol oyunları and then the dialogues with mainly humorous features were presented. This created the two main characters of ortaoyunu namely Kavuklu and Pişekar. Ahmed Rasim argues that the role of Kavuklu was invented by Aktar Şükrü.13
After these shows had developed and gained various names such as kol oyunu, meydan oyunu, and zuhûri in time, it started to be called ortaoyunu beginning from the nineteenth century. Taking the final form of ortaoyunu and arrival of the European style theatre in Turkey took place around the same time. The newly emerged ortaoyunu on the one hand was trying to establish its own traditions and rules and on the other hand it was getting influenced by European theatre. This influence showed itself in the changes of the players’ clothes and in starting to perform the plays on theatre stages.
The foreign diplomats and travelers visiting Istanbul give significant information about ortaoyunu.
The French ambassador Thevenot who watched the festivities organized for the circumcision ceremonies of the Sultan Abdülmecid’s sons over the slopes of Dolmabahçe talks about that he watched “Turkish comedy” in a tent together with the grand vizier, the minister of foreign affairs, and other high ranking government officials and that the roles of female players were performed by male players who wore female clothes and veils.14 Since it was impossible for women to take part in such place because of the influence of the religious beliefs and traditional culture and by the requirements of women’s social position in the Ottoman society, women’s roles were performed by male players.
Similarly the French artillery officer Baron de Tott who attended the celebrations organized for the birth of Sultan Mustafa III’s daughter Hibetullah Sultan in 1758 gives information about the settings of ortaoyunu plays saying “in the middle of the area, there was a cage-like, three feet wide and six feet high structure covered with linens represented a house.”15 The cage mentioned by Baron de Tott is the cage which started to be used as décor in ortaoyunu and become known as “New World (Yeni Dünya)” in later periods.
As in the case of karagöz, ortaoyunu, too, was born, fed, and developed from the Istanbul’s life style. The characters in both types of plays and the subjects of their plays resemble each other. This is why ortaoyunu is interpreted as the form of karagöz shadow shows which were played by live players. The main characters of ortaoyunu, Pişekâr and Kavuklu, remind the audience Karagöz and Hacivat. Other characters are also same as the ones in karagöz plays. The structure of the plays was constituted from four sections, namely prologue (öndeyiş), dialogue (söyleşme), the main play (fasıl), and an epilogue or final (bitiş).
Just like in karagöz plays, the players of ortaoyunu were also chosen from the people who lived in Istanbul. These people who fulfilled their daily professions acted in plays in their free times left after their works. Some of the names of the ortaoyunu players mentioned in various sources are as follows: Abdi Efendi, Abdürrezzak, Acem Seyfi, Agâh Efendi, Ali Bey, Aktar Şükrü Efendi, Arap Cemal, Arnavut Ali, Aşkî Efendi, Borazan Tevfik, Büyük İsmail, Çolak İbrahim Efendi, Dalgın Serafim Efendi, Derviş Ağa, Dümbüllü İsmail, Emin Ağa, Hacıhasan Efendi, Hafız Cemal Efendi, Hamamcı Süleyman Efendi, Hayalî Safa, Hüsnü Efendi, İhsan, İmam Hakkı Efendi, Kadir Ağa, Kambur İzzet, Kambur Rıza, Kantarcı Kadri, Karagöz Mehmed Efendi, Kaşıkçı Mehmed Efendi, Kâtip Salih Efendi, Kavuklu Ali, Kavuklu Hamdi, Kel Hasan, Köçek Ali Efendi, Kör Agâh Efendi, Kör Mehmed Efendi, Küçük Hamdi Efendi, Küçük İsmail, İsmet Efendi, Meddah Sururi, Mutaf Mustafa, Naşit, Paçavracı İsmail Efendi, Rıfat Efendi, Saffet, Saracalı İsmail Efendi, Saraç Hüsnü, Sarafım Saffet, Serçe Mehmed Efendi, Şehreminli Cevdet Efendi, Şeyh Hakkı, Tahir Efendi, Tulumbacı Kemal Baba, Usturacı İbrahim Efendi, Osep Efendi, Yemenici Rıza.
Ortaoyunu players performed their art in certain closed places, commercial buildings (han) or in leisurely walking places in Istanbul. Some of the closed places such as many coffee houses where ortaoyunu was performed were: Dilküşâ Coffee House in Aksaray Yeşil Tulumba, the show site in Hagia Sophia, Basilica (Ayasofya, Yerebatan), the show site in Beşiktaş Fulya Tarlası, Enver Efendi’s show site in Cundi Square, theatre in Defterdar Tavukhane, Arif Bey’s Coffee House in Divanyolu, Slave Master’s Theatre at the Slave Market, Kadripaşa Hanı which was near İskilip Hanı in İskender Boğazı, Üskülüp Hanı in Makasçılariçi, Hayal and Kavuklu Theatre across the Sultan Mahmut’s Tomb, Bahçeli Coffee House on Tomruk Road in Tahtakale, and Saraç Hanı in Tavuk Pazarı.
The open spaces where ortaoyunu was performed were: Bakırköy, Bayrampaşa, Bendler, Municipality Garden (Sultanahmet), Bitli-Kâğıthane, Büyükdere Pasture, Çengelköyü, Çınçırsuyu, Çubuklu, the show site right across the famous kebab house Hasan Efendi Restaurant in Divanyolu, Doğancılar, Edirnekapı, Edirnekapı’da, Kovas’ vineyard in Eyüp, Ortakçılar, Fenerbahçe, Göksu, Havuzbaşı, Haydarpaşa Pasture, Hünkârsuyu, İçerenköy, Kadırga Square, Kâğıthane Pasture, Kazıklıbağ, Kestanesuyu, Kızıltoprak, Koşuyolu Wood, the casino in Kumkapı, Kuşdili Pasture, Papaz’s Vineyard near Kuşdili, Küçük Çamlıca Slope, Küçüksu, Libade, Mama, Merdiven Village, Moda Burnu, Nuh Kuyusu, Sarıyer, Şifa Havuzu, the play site in Üsküdar Çarşıboyu Demirciler, Bağlarbaşı in Üsküdar, Çiftlik Casino, Sarıkaya Park, Orchard outside Yedikule, Yenibahçe pasture, Kehnal Vineyard, and Yoğurtçu Slope.
It is impossible to think karagöz and ortaoyunu apart from Istanbul; and Istanbul apart from ortaoyunu. The names of Istanbul’s districts, streets, squares, slopes, streams, lakes, commercial buildings (hans), restaurants, historical sites, docks, pubs, market places, and bazaars were mentioned in every karagöz play and ortaoyunu.
The names of the districts mentioned in the plays are: Anadoluhisarı, Anadolukavağı, Arnavutköy, Balat, Beyazıt, Beykoz, Boğaziçi, Büyükdere, Çamlıca, Çırpıcı, Dökmeciler, Edirnekapı, Emirgân, Erenköy, Eyüp, Fatih, Fenerbahçe, Feneryolu, Feriköy, Galata, Halıcıoğlu, Harem, Havuzbaşı, İstinye, Kabataş, Kadıköy, Kadırga, Kâğıthane, Kalyoncu Kolluğu, Kandilli, Kanlıca, Karagümrük, Karaköy, Kasımpaşa, Kasır, Kızıltoprak, Kumkapı, Kuruçeşme, Kuzguncuk, Küçüksu, Mahmutpaşa, Maltepe, Moda, Merdivenköy, Mesarburnu, Ortabostan, Ortaköy, Pangaltı, Parmakkapı, Paşabahçe, Pendik, Rumelihisarı, Salacak, Samatya, Sarayburnu, Sarıgüzel, Sarıyer, Silahtar, Silivri, Silivrikapısı, Sirkeci, Sulukule, Şişli, Tahtakale, Taksim, Tarabya, Taşkasap, Tepebaşı, Tophane, Unkapanı, Uzunçayır, Vaniköy, Vefa, Yenimahalle.
The names of the streets and regions mentioned in the plays are: Akbıyık, Atlamataşı, Çavuşbaşı, Direklerarası, Feneryolu, Kabasakal, Koksa, Sarıgüzel, Zeyrek.
The names of the roads mentioned in those plays are: Çöplük, Çukurçeşme, Dökmeciler, Kazancılariçi, Kılburnu, Yahnikapan, Yenikapan, Yorgancılar.
The names of the squares: Atmeydanı, Çayır, Çayırlar, İbrahimağa.
The name of the stream is: Göksu.
The names of the lakes are: Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece.
The name of the commercial buildings is: Havyar Hanı.
The names of the pubs are: Avram Papi’s pub, Kafesli Pub, Küplü, Küçük Aynalı.
The names of the docks are: Çöplük, Limon İskelesi, Yağkapanı, Unkapanı, Halıcıoğlu.
The names of the Bazaars and Market Places are: Balıkpazarı, Bitpazarı, Çarşambapazarı, Irgatpazarı, Kapalıçarşı (Grand bazaar), Meyvahoş, Uzunçarşı.
The names of the restaurants are: Kabagöt’s Restaurant.
The names of the slopes are: Çakmakçılar Yokuşu, Serencebey Yokuşu, Zeyrek.
The names of the historical Places are: Haydarpaşa, Havyar Hanı, Galata Tower, Kız Kulesi (Maiden’s Tower), Kıztaşı (Column of Marcian).
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1 For further information see Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu, “Kars Şehrinde Karagöz Oyunu”, TFA, 112, vol. 5 (1958), pp. 1789-1790; Mevlüt Özhan, “Gaziantep’te Karagöz”, Folklor/Edebiyat, 1995, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 115-123.
2 Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil, “İstanbul’da Karagöz ve Karagöz’de İstanbul”, İnsan, vol. 1 (1938), no. 2, p. 147.
3 Siyavuşgil, “İstanbul’da Karagöz”, p. 151.
4 Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil, Karagöz: Psiko-Sosyolojik Bir Deneme, Istanbul: Maarif Vekaleti Matbaası, 1941, pp. 56-58.
5 Metin And, Geleneksel Türk Tiyatrosu, Istanbul: Anka Ofset, 1985, p. 283.
6 Daryo Mizrahi, “Osmanlı’da Karagöz Oyunları”, Toplumsal Tarih, no. 181 (2009), pp. 48-55.
7 Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil, “İstanbul’da Karagöz ve Karagöz’de İstanbul”, İnsan, 1938, vol. 1, no. 3 (1938), pp. 225-228.
8 Metin And, 40 Gün 40 Gece-Osmanlı Düğünleri, Şenlikleri, Geçit Alayları, Istanbul: Toprakbank, 2000, p. 220.
9 Ali Rıza Bey, “III. Selim Devrinin Meşhur Hayalilerinden Hafız Bey”, Karagöz Kitabı, prepared by Sevengül Sönmez, 2. ed., Istanbul: Kitabevi, 2005, p. 196.
10 Enver B. Şapolyo, Karagöz’ün Tarihi, Istanbul: Türkiye Yayınevi, no date,, p. 96.
11 Raphaela Lewis, Osmanlı’da Gündelik Yaşam, tr. Adile R. Orhunsoy, Ankara: Al-ter Yayıncılık, 2009, 119-120.
12 Günümüz Türkçesiyle Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnâmesi, prepared by Seyit Ali Kahraman and Yücel Dağlı, Istanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2003, vol. 1/2, p. 765.
13 Ahmed Râsim, Muharrir Bu Ya, Istanbul: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, 1969, p. 97.
14 And, 40 Gün 40 Gece, p. 216.
15 And, 40 Gün 40 Gece, p. 217.