In the Ottoman Empire, particularly in the later eras, Turks tended to neglect fields like medicine and pharmacy and as a result, the majority of physicians and pharmacists working in Istanbul were foreigners and non-Muslims citizens. As a result, physicians and pharmacists from these communities established the first professional societies emerging in the second half of the nineteenth century. However, towards the end of the same century the number of Turks active in those fields gradually increased. However, despite the establishment of several societies during the Second Constitutional Period, a great majority of them would not last.


Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye (Ottoman Scientific Society)

The Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye (Ottoman Scientific Society)1was established under the leadership of Mehmed Tahir Münif Efendi (Pasha) (d. 1910) following the collapse of the Encümen-i Daniş (Academy of Science), which had failed to live up to expectations. The application to establish a society was made by Halil Bey, the ambassador to St. Petersburg; permission was given for activities to begin in May 25, 1861.

The goals of the society can be summarized as the compilation and translation of books, the holding of public lectures and efforts to spread science and applied sciences through publishing a journal, called Mecmua-i Fünun (Journal of Science). The society was to be maintained without any support from the state, funded from membership dues and revenue raised through journal subscription and sales.

The society had three types of membership: permanent, provisional and correspondent. In order to become a permanent member, one was required to speak Arabic, Persian or at least one European language besides Turkish. Members were also required to be Ottoman citizens, write or lecture for the Mecmua-i Fünun, and take on responsibilities concerning book compilation and translations.

The society had 41 founder members, of whom 33 were permanent members, 8 were provisional members. None of the founders was a member of the scholarly class. Only Hayrullah Efendi and Kemal Efendi had been involved with the Encümen-i Daniş. 16 of the permanent members worked at the Translation Office, 11 were officers holding various positions, 3 were teachers at the Mühendishane (Engineering School), the other 3 being military officers.2

The Taşmektep building in the Çiçek Bazaar in Eminönü was allocated to the society. Here, lectures on law, economics and politics were provided for the public, as well as instruction in French, English and Greek. A great number of students began to attend the lessons at the society’s head office. Due to the particular popularity of the French lessons, four French classes were opened. Lessons were regularly given on certain days and at certain hours of the week.

At the beginning of 1864, a reading room, including a collection of books and a coffee house, was opened at the head office of the society. A 1,000-volume collection, consisting of books that had been donated, was organized. In addition to books, there were also maps, plaques relating to geography and various sciences, and various devices concerned with the study of physics and mechanics. Those plaques, devices and models were also used during lessons. The names of the donators and the titles of the books they had donated were published in the Mecmua-i Fünun.3 A set of regulations concerning the book collection was prepared. According to these regulations, users of the collection were required to make a semiannual payment of 30 kuruş in cash—5 kuruş per month—in exchange for the benefits offered. Alternatively, a user could gain admittance to the library if sponsored by one of the members of the library. Students studying at authorized schools were not required to pay for these services. The regulations prepared for the Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye collection were the first example of modern regulations for a library in Turkey. It was the only public library in Istanbul where books in foreign languages in the fields of science and engineering could be found. In addition, 7 Turkish, 10 French, 5 English, 4 Armenian and 3 Greek newspapers were made available in the reading room at the head office of the society.4

A printing house was established at the head office of the society with the aim of printing the Mecmua-i Fünun. Books in French, Greek and Armenian could also be printed there, as the typeset for Latin, Greek and Armenian alphabets were available. This printing house continued to function for a long time, even after the society became inactive. A few additional books and the Mecmua-yı Maarif (Journal of Learning) were published there.5

1a- Mecmua-i Funun published by Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye

The most important product of the society was the journal Mecmua-i Fünun, which was published monthly between 1862 and 1867.6 Almost one year after the foundation of the society, in June 1862, the first issue of the journal was published and it continued to be published regularly until the 33rd issue came out in January 1865. The society had to stop their activities and the publication of the journal due to financial difficulties. A short time later, on February 18, 1865, they were able to restart their activities when the state made a donation of 50,000 kuruş; almost one year later, in May 1866, the 34th issue of the journal was published. The journal was regularly published until the 43rd issue, which was released in February 1867. The society’s publishing business came to end with the publication of the 45th issue in June 1867, when the society disbanded.

While at the beginning, 300 copies of the journal’s each issue, this number would later be doubled. Twenty individuals and foundations subscribed to more than one copy in order to support it: the total number of the copies purchased by these was 84.7 Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye continued its successful work, particularly under the auspices of Grand Vizier Keçecizade Fuad Pasha and under the administration of Münif Pasha.

Cemiyet-i İlmiye (Scientific Society)

In 1879, soon after Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye came to an end, the Cemiyet-i İlmiye (Scientific Society) was established. While there is no data available concerning the founders or the exact date of the establishment of this society, we do know that a journal called Mecmua-i Ulum (Journal of Sciences) ran for seven issues between December 29, 1879 and February 12, 1880. The goals of the society were not only to spread science and culture, but included loftier ideals like the propagation of certain crafts and professions, and support for certain schools. Generally, they hoped to spread the knowledge and practice of science, applied sciences, agriculture and industry. Among the authors who contributed to Mecmua-i Ulum were Namık Kemal and the manager of the second Darülfünun, Hoca Hasan Tahsin Efendi.8


The Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane (Imperial Medical Society) / Türk Tıp Derneği (Turkish Medical Association)

A large number of English, French and Italian physicians who started to reside in Istanbul due to the Crimean War felt the need to come together and discuss the medical problems that they encountered. Following a preliminary preparatory period, which lasted for six months under the guidance of one of the physicians in the English army, Dr. Pincoffs, the first meeting of the society was held on February 15, 1856. The name of the society at the time of its foundation was Dersaadet Cemiyet-i Tıbbiyesi/ Société Médicale de Constantinople (Istanbul Medical Society). While there were some Ottoman citizens among the 40 founding members of the society, none of them were of Turkish nationality. With a decree dated May 24, 1856, as a result of the efforts of Grand Vizier Fuad Pasha, who had also studied medicine, it was decided to give official permission to establish the society, to add the attribute şahane (imperial) to the title, and to allocate 50 gold coins per month to the society. After that, the name of the society was changed to Société Impériale de Médecine/Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane (Imperial Medical Society) and the regulations were published on January 22, 1858. The official language of this society, which consisted of mostly foreign physicians and Christian physicians of Ottoman citizenship, was French. However, as the language of instruction at the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane (Imperial Medical School) at that period was also French, this was not an unusual decision. In the late nineteenth century, Sultan Abdülhamid II reduced the society’s annual allocation of 600 liras to 280 liras per year. The society held weekly meetings and during these meetings diseases that were breaking out on the battlefronts and the health problems of the country were discussed. In addition, interesting medical cases were described, and foreign professors gave lectures. The society remained isolated from Turkish society during the period before the Second Constitutional Period. Some members scorned Turks and their culture. In addition, the society became the focus of the opposition to the movement for making Turkish the official language of medicine in the country. Between 1856 and 1922, out of 63 presidents of the society only 5 were Turkish. During the Second Constitutional Period, while the number and dominance of Turkish members in the society increased, the influence of the Committee of Union and Progress, which was in power at that time, began to increase. Thus, the official language of the society changed to Turkish in 1918. Following the abolition of the sultanate, the name of the society was changed to the Şark Tıp Cemiyeti (Oriental Medical Society) and in 1923 it was renamed Türk Tıp Cemiyeti (Turkish Medical Society). In 1973 it became the Türk Tıp Derneği (Turkish Medical Association), and it remains thus today.9

The most important contribution of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane was the Gazete Médicale de l’Orient (Medical Newspaper of the Orient), which was published as the media organ of the society. The society decided to begin publication on February 15, 1857 and the first issue was published in April, 1857. The journal, which was published in French, included the minutes of the society, reports on various topics, medical news and the first health statistics ever collected in the Ottoman Empire. The journal ran for 70 issues until 1925, when it was decided to discontinue it.10

Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye (Ottoman Medical Society)

A strong supporter of medical education in Turkish, Mehmed Cemaleddin Efendi, was appointed as president of the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane on June 26, 1853. In 1856, when Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane was established, Cemaleddin Efendi created a “distinguished class” from among the most promising students. The idea behind the creation of such a class was to train a core cadre to introduce Turkish as the language of medicine throughout the country. Later, Cemaleddin Efendi appointed the historian Ahmed Lütfi Efendi as the professor for this class, and Arif Efendi and Şevki Efendi were lecturers. The class consisted of Crimean Aziz İdris, Vahdeddin, Hüseyin Remzi, Servet, Nedim, İbrahim Lütfi and Bekir Sıtkı. They received Arabic, Persian and Turkish lessons.11

After the removal of Cemaleddin Efendi and the termination of the distinguished class in 1859, students carried on their studies. They were exposed to the Turkish translations that had already been completed, and put their efforts behind teaching medicine in Turkish. They understood that in order to promote the exchange of ideas, medical literature needed to be translated; medical issues, which could attract the public’s attention, should be written in Turkish; a scientific society should be established, and a scientific journal needed to be published. Thus, the regulations of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye (Ottoman Medical Society) were prepared, although the society had not been granted official status. During his second presidency, Salih Efendi took the necessary steps to ensure the official establishment of the society. In 1867, a decree for the creation of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye was passed. The decree stipulated that it remain under the supervision of the Directorate of the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane. The society would be provided 1,000 kuruş per month as stationery cost. As a result of attempts made under the leadership of Crimean Aziz Bey, the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Mülkiye (Civil Medical School) was established to teach medical classes in Turkish.12 This school played an important role in the switch of the language of medical education at the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane to Turkish in 1870. In that same year, the society embarked on a project to translate medical books from French to Turkish. In 1892 they began to hold scientific meetings, known as Tıbbi Müzakereler (Medical Debates). Activities of the society were called to a halt by Abdülhamid II on May 29, 1897. Following this, the society continued their translation work under the name Tedkik-i Müellefat Komisyonu (The Commission for Studying Written Works). As a result of this translation activity, a total of 168 medical books were translated into Turkish and published. 46 of these were from the 1870s, 77 from between 1881 and 1892, and 45 between 1893 and 1904.

1b- Mecmua-i Funun published by Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye

One of the most important works of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye was the Lügat-ı Tıbbiye (Medical Dictionary), published in 1873.13 This was a French-Turkish dictionary which included terms relating to basic sciences as well as medical terms. A second, more extended edition of the dictionary was published as the Lügat-ı Tıb in 1900.

2- The ordinance of Mecmua-i Funun published by Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye

The society was reopened after a meeting held on December 25, 1910, following the Second Constitutional Period. However, no real impact was made, due to the conditions during the Balkan Wars and World War I. In 1921 new legislation was prepared. Reorganized after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the society was renamed Türkiye Tıp Encümeni (Medical Council of Turkey). 20 national medical congresses were held between 1925 and 1968 by the Türkiye Tıp Encümeni, and all of the proceedings were published. These congresses played an important role in determining the health policies of Turkey. The society took the name Turkiye Tıp Akademisi (Medical Academy of Turkey) on December 10, 1966. In 1946, a semiannual journal, known as Türkiye Tıp Encümeni Arşivi (Archives of the Turkish Medical Council) began to be published. Subsequent to the change in the foundation’s name, the journal continued to be published quarterly, as the Türkiye Tıp Akademisi Mecmuası (Journal of Medical Academy of Turkey). The Türkiye Tıp Akademisi still functions today.14

Üsküdar Hekimleri Cemiyeti (Society of Doctors of Üsküdar)

Due to the efforts of the pharmacist Antoine Calleja (1806-1893), one of the teachers at the Imperial School of Medicine, a society known as the Association des Médécins de Scutari/Üsküdar Hekimleri Cemiyeti was established in 1869. Its chief aims were to provide professional and scientific solidarity among physicians on the Anatolian side of Istanbul and to give better medical service to the public. The society decided to devote its work to improving the condition of pharmacies, and they aimed to open a dispensary and a vaccination center. There is unfortunately no further information about how long the society continued to exist.15

Club Médicale de Constantinople / İstanbul Tıp Kulübü (Medical Club of Istanbul)

In 1903 a society called the Club Médicale de Constantinople/İstanbul Tıp Kulübü was established to provide a sense of solidarity among physicians and to protect the interests of foreign doctors who were disturbed by the increase in the number of Turks among the members of the Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane. Between November 30, 1903 and September 1907, the society published a journal called the Comptes Rendus de Club Médicale de Constantinople. We have no further information on the development of this society or when it was closed down.16

Societies Established during the Second Constitutional Period

Following the declaration of the Second Constitutional Period, medical societies increased in number, as did societies in every field. During this period, in addition to medical societies that were established for general purposes, societies devoted to particular fields of medicine were also created. On July 30, 1908, in order to protect and represent the professional interests of physicians, a society, called Etıbba-yi Mülkiye-i Osmaniye Cemiyet-i İttihadiyesi / Association des Médicins Civils Ottomans (Ottoman Society of Civil Doctors) was established in Istanbul. Two years later, however, this society was closed down because its activities could not be sustained. Subsequently, Etıbba-yı Mülkiye Cemiyeti (Civil Doctors Society) was established on December 14, 1911. The goals of the society can be summarized as follows: to create social opportunities in a scientific environment, to foster fellowship and cooperation among members, to protect and represent the rights of civilian physicians, to fight against diseases that threaten public health and to make contributions to the development of the profession. The society aimed to publish a journal and open more chapters throughout the country. How long this society survived is not known.

3- Mecmua-i Ulum published by Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye

In 1909, as the Istanbul Darülfünun Faculty of Medicine was being organized; the position of teaching assistant was abolished, and those remaining on staff were given the title of supervisor. However, unfortunately the supervisors were required to complete the duties formerly assigned to the teaching assistants. Thus, the Osmanlı Tıp Fakültesi Şefler Cemiyeti (Ottoman Society of Supervisors for the Faculty of Medicine) was established in late 1910 to protect the rights of the faculty members who had the title of supervisor and to ensure the employment of teaching assistants once again at the institution. In 1911, these supervisors adamantly opposed performing duties that lay outside the role of supervisor. However, these efforts calmed down for a while due to the increasing violence of the Balkan Wars in early 1914. As a result of the abolishment of the position of supervisor in the regulations of the Darülfünun Faculty of Medicine and Related Branches on March 4, 1916, the problem was solved. It is not known when this society ceased to function.17

Upon the completion of its legislation, the Osmanlı Tababet-i Akliye ve Asabiye Cemiyeti (Ottoman Mental and Neurological Medical Society) came into existence in 1914. In 1918, for the first time in Turkey, scientific findings began to be presented and discussed at their meetings, which were led by Dr. Mazhar Osman (Uzman; d. 1952). This society also managed to continue its activities during the Republican period, although the word “Ottoman” was removed from their name. A society called Tababet-i Ruhiye Cemiyeti (Society of Psychiatrists) was established by Dr. Raşit Tahsin (Tuğsavul; d. 1936), one of the teachers at the Darülfünun Faculty of Medicine in December 1918. They held their meetings at the Faculty of Medicine. This society put an end to their activities in 1926. When the number of people dying from tuberculosis, due to the conditions of the war, increased, in an attempt to combat the disease, the Veremle Mücadele Osmanlı Cemiyeti (Ottoman Society to Combat Tuberculosis) was established in 8 June, 1918 under the leadership of the Minister of the Navy, Ahmet Cemal Pasha (d. 1922). The society elected Dr. Besim Ömer Pasha (d. 1940) as president and built two small buildings near the Faculty of Medicine in Haydarpaşa to use as dispensaries. Upon the occupation of Istanbul on March 16, 1920, the society was obliged to stop their activities, but then managed to continue under new auspices as the Veremle Savaş Cemiyeti (The Society to Combat Tuberculosis) during the Republican period. In 1919, the Emraz-ı Cildiye ve Efrenciye Cemiyeti (Society of Skin Diseases and Syphilis) was established. During the meetings of the society, problems relating to skin diseases and syphilis were discussed and presentations of cases relating to these issues were made. As of 1921, a journal, half in Turkish, half in French, called İstanbul Emraz-ı Cildiye ve Efrenciye Cemiyeti Mecmuası/Bulletin de la Société de Dermatologie et de Syphilographie de Constantinople (Journal of the Society of Skin Diseases and Syphilis), began to be published. This society was closed down at the beginning of the Republican Period. In an unfavorable atmosphere following the Armistice of Mondrose, physicians established the Etibba Muhadenet Cemiyeti (Fellowship Society of Doctors) in order to increase solidarity and arrive at mutual solutions to problems. The establishment of this society occurred at a meeting held at the Türk Ocağı on March 14, 1919, under the leadership of Dr. Asaf Derviş Pasha, one of the teachers at the Faculty of Medicine. In addition, in order to take care of physicians who had died, the society launched a charitable fund. At the same time, another society with similar goals, the Etibba Teavün Cemiyeti (Charitable Society of Doctors), was established in Kadıköy. In 1923, these two societies were united as the İstanbul Etibba Muhadenet ve Teavün Cemiyeti (Fellowship and Charitable Society of Istanbul Physicians) and in 1935 became the Türk Hekimleri Dostluk ve Yardım Cemiyeti (Fellowship and Aid Society of Turkish Physicians).18


Société de Pharmacie de Constantinople / Cemiyet-i Eczacıyan der Asitane-i Aliyye (Society of Pharmacists of Istanbul)

4- Gazete Médicale d’Orient (Medical Gazette of the Orient) published by Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane

The Cemiyet-i Eczacıyan der Asitane-i Aliyye (Society of Pharmacists of Istanbul) was established by the pharmacy owners in Istanbul on June 9, 1879.19 The society aimed to improve the level of pharmaceutics available in Istanbul and other cities of the Ottoman State, to assist the government in scientific research within the bounds of a pharmacy and to protect the interests of pharmacists. Charles Bonkowski was elected the first president of the society. The number of members rapidly increased from 185 in the founding year to 210. Although the society applied to assume the title of “şahane” (imperial) in 1881, it was only authorized to use the name Cemiyet-i Osmaniye-i Eczacıyn (Ottoman Society of Pharmacists) in a decree dated January 16–18, 1881. The society was closed down following a meeting held on September 18, 1882 for unknown reasons. The society published a journal called the Journal de Société de Pharmacie de Constantinople between 1879 and 1880. Ten years after this, the pharmacy owners decided to restart the society’s activities at a meeting held on June 23, 1892. Consequently, an election for the board of directors was held. Meetings of the society were held every 15 days. At first, information was presented about the literature, books and journals that had been sent to the society. Later, original professional and scientific papers were presented and discussed. The summaries of papers given were published in a journal called Revue Médico-Pharmaceutique. The most important matter that the society dealt with was the regulation of items sold at herbal stores where Muslim people shopped. Regulations that benefited the pharmacists were introduced.

The society’s activities were brought to a halt by the police in 1908. During the Second Constitutional Period, some of the members tried to revive the society once again, but they were unsuccessful. Some of the members united with Turkish pharmacists and established the Osmanlı Eczacı İttihad Cemiyeti (Ottoman Unified Pharmacists Society). Although a society known as the Association des Pharmaciens Etrangers was established in 1907 by foreign pharmacists in Istanbul, there is not much information about this association.

Osmanlı Eczacı İttihad Cemiyeti (Ottoman Unified Pharmacists Society)

After the declaration of the Second Constitutional Period, as a result of the attempts by prominent Turkish pharmacists in Istanbul, a meeting was held on August 1908; 250 pharmacists attended. At this meeting it was decided to establish a society to be named Osmanlı Eczacı İttihad Birlik Cemiyeti (Ottoman Unified Pharmacists Society), and Hamdi Bey was elected as president. Although the society prepared new regulations for pharmacies and pharmacists, as well as a medication tariff that would have solved important professional problems for pharmacists, they were never put into effect. Non-Turkish pharmacists, considering that this turn of events was a failure, left the society in 1909 and established a new society under the name Devlet-i Osmaniye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Society of Pharmacists of the Ottoman State).20

Société des Pharmaciens de l’Empire Ottoman / Devlet-i Osmaniye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Society of Pharmacists of the Ottoman State)

The Devlet-i Osmaniye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Society of Pharmacists of the Ottoman State) was established by non-Turkish pharmacy owners in Istanbul on November 19, 1909.21 Although the society was initially established by non-Turkish pharmacists, the number of Turkish pharmacists in Istanbul was increasing, and with this, the number of Turkish members of the society grew. The Turkish members gradually gained more and more influence in the society. At a meeting on March 24, 1911, the official language of the society was declared to be Turkish. At a meeting on April 7, 1911 Ahmet Vefik (Uluçay) Bey was elected president. Nail Halit (Tipi) Bey replaced him in 1914. Although the members intended to agree on a program and work to unite all the pharmacists’ societies that had been created, thus increasing their strength and ability to protect the rights and benefits of pharmacists, the plan could be realized on June 13, 1924, when the Türkiye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Turkish Society of Pharmacists) was established.

The name of the society was first changed to İstanbul Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Society of Istanbul Pharmacists) in May 29, 1928 and then to Türkiye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Turkish Society of Pharmacists) at a meeting dated March 19, 1929. Since the members of this society included pharmacy owners as well as licensed pharmacists, a society under the name of Türk Farmakolog Birliği (Turkish Union of Pharmacologists) was established on May 28, 1929 with the intent to bring together all certified pharmacists under the same auspices. Although the name of the society was changed to Türkiye Emgen Kurumu (Turkish Institution of Pharmacists) at a meeting held on May 26, 1935, the members again changed the name to Türkiye Eczacıları Cemiyeti (Turkish Union of Pharmacists) on April 10, 1939.22


Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimar Cemiyeti (Ottoman Society of Engineers and Architects)23

On August 28, 1908, after the declaration of the Second Constitutional Period, Ottoman architects and engineers gathered in the garden of the Sirkeci train station on August 28, 1908, summoned there by the pioneer architect Kemaleddin Bey. At this gathering they decided to establish a society under the name Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimar Cemiyeti (Ottoman Society of Engineers and Architects). They created a temporary committee of seven men. This committee was to prepare the regulations of the society. The temporary committee quickly carried out their duty and the regulations were accepted. The first board was elected at a meeting held on September 18, 1908. The aim in founding the society was defined as protecting the rights of engineers and architects, working on the development of public works and architecture in Ottoman lands, enhancing fellowship and commitment among Ottoman engineers and architects, protecting the poor and undertaking research and scientific studies concerning engineering and architecture. Moreover, the architects and engineers residing outside of Istanbul fell within the scope of the society. As of October 1909, nearly one year after its foundation, the society began to publish a journal called the Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimar Cemiyeti Mecmuası (the Journal of the Ottoman Society of Engineers and Architects), but the journal was not to last long; the final issue, the 12th issue, was published in September 1909.24 Although the society was not officially closed down, it disintegrated in the atmosphere of successive wars between 1912 and 1919. As a result of the attempts by architect Kemaleddin Bey, who wished to revive the society during the Armistice period, a new board was elected at a meeting held on July 28, 1919. Although no journals were published during this period, the society did issue a number of books.

Association des Architectes et Ingénieurs en Turquie

This society was established by mostly non-Turkish engineers and architects after 1912, when the Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimar Cemiyeti suspended their activities. Its official Turkish name is not known. The foundation of the society was approved on October 31, 1913 and the languages of the society were Turkish and French. There is no further information about how long the society continued to function.25

Osmanlı Mühendis İktisat Cemiyeti (The Ottoman Economic Society of Engineers)

Osmanlı Mühendis İktisat Cemiyeti (The Ottoman Economic Society of Engineers), which aimed to create a company with the capital accumulated by raising funds among students and graduates of the School of Engineering, was established in 1912. It can be said that the society was a result of the policy of “national economy” that had been initiated by the Committee of Union and Progress. It is not known whether the society fulfilled its goals or not, nor is known when it was closed down.26

In terms of professional societies and foundations that operated between the Ottoman period and the 1960s, it can be stated that there were many active and influential societies. The main reason for this success was the structural relation between those foundations and the bureaucracy. There was one medical faculty, one pharmacy school, one school of dentistry and one engineering school in Turkey. The graduates produced by these schools were limited in number and knew one another. Graduates who were given managerial posts in the national bureaucracy were often members, even directors of professional societies. Such a situation continued during the Republican period, and a significant portion of the professional members took on various tasks in the Republican People’s Party, which was the sole party during this period. For instance, the general meeting of the Türkiye Eczacıları Cemiyeti, which was convened once every six months, was held at the Beyoğlu center for the Republican People’s Party on June 4, 1926. First, “the favor shown by His Excellency Gazi Pasha in Bursa was presented to the Heyet-i Umumiye [General Meeting] and the protective stance taken by the Minister of Health towards the profession was referred to with gratitude.” Following these statements, demands related to the matter of taxation were discussed. This report clearly illustrates the organic structure between the societies and the government.


1 İsmail Eren, “Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye’nin Faaliyet ve Tesirleri”, BTTD, 1971, vol. 45 (1971), pp. 10-12; Ekrem Işın, “Osmanlı Bilim Tarihi; Münif Paşa ve Mecmua-i Fünun”, TT, vol. 11 (1984), pp. 61-66; Yeşim Işıl (Ülman), “Bir Aydınlanma Hareketi Olarak Mecmua-i Fünun,” postgraduate thesis, Istanbul University, 1986; Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, “Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye’nin Kuruluş ve Faaliyetleri”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 197- 220.

2 İhsanoğlu, “Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye”, pp. 202-204.

3 Işıl (Ülman), “Bir Aydınlanma Hareketi”, pp. 149-160.

4 Işıl (Ülman), “Bir Aydınlanma Hareketi”, pp. 161-162.

5 Eren, “Cemiyet-i İlmiye-i Osmaniye”, p. 11.

6 A detailed breakdown and evaluation of articles published in the Mecmua-yı Fünun was completed by Yeşim Işıl (Ülman).

7 Işıl (Ülman), “Bir Aydınlanma Hareketi”, p. 148.

8 Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, “Cemiyet-i İlmiye ve Mecmua-yı Ulûm”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 222- 245.

9 Ekrem Kadri Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 86-88.

10 Hüsrev Hatemi and Aykut Kazancıgil, “Türk Tıp Cemiyeti (Derneği) Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane ve Tıbbın Gelişmesine Katkıları”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 111-119.

11 Nil Sarı, “Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye ve Tıp Dilinin Türkçeleşmesi Akımı”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 121-122; Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, p. 88.

12 Sarı, “Cemiyet-i Tıbbiye-i Osmaniye”, pp. 121-125; Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, pp. 88- 89.

13 Lugat-ı Tıbbiye, Istanbul: Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane Matbaası, 1290 (1873).

14 Dünden Bugüne Türkiye Tıp Akademisi, Istanbul: Türkiye Tıp Akademisi Yayınları, 2010.

15 Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, pp. 96-97.

16 Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, p. 98.

17 Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, pp. 98-101.

18 Unat, “Osmanlı Devletinde Tıp Cemiyetleri”, pp. 102-105.

19 Turhan Baytop, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Döneminde Eczacılık Cemiyetleri”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, p. 144-147. It is understood that a society named “Société de Pharmacie de Constantinople” was founded in 1863 but could not continue its activities.

20 Baytop, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Döneminde Eczacılık Cemiyetleri”, pp. 148-149.

21 Baytop, “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Döneminde Eczacılık Cemiyetleri”, pp. 149-151.

22 Naşid Baylav, Eczacılık Tarihi, Istanbul: Yörük Matbaası, 1968, pp. 413-423.

23 Feza Günergun, “Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimarları Arasında İlk Cemiyetleşme Teşebbüsleri”, Osmanlı İlmî ve Meslekî Cemiyetleri, prepared by Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Istanbul: İslam Tarih, Sanat ve Kültür Araştırma Merkezi, 1987, pp. 156-179; Cüneyd Okay, Eski Harfli Mühendislik Dergileri, Istanbul: Kurtiş Matbaası, 2004, pp. 44-47.

24 Hasan Duman, Başlangıcından Harf Devrimine Kadar Osmanlı-Türk Süreli Yayınlar ve Gazeteler Bibliyografyası ve Toplu Kataloğu, 1828-1928, Ankara: Enformasyon ve Dokümantasyon Hizmetleri Vakfı, 2000, vol. 2, p. 663.

25 Günergun, “Osmanlı Mühendis ve Mimarları”, pp. 179-182.

26 Okay, Eski Harfli Mühendislik Dergileri, pp. 33-37.

This article was translated from Turkish version of History of Istanbul with some editions to be published in a digitalized form in 2019.